Pontus LST-201 - History

Pontus LST-201 - History

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(LST-201 dp. 4,080 (f.); 1. 328'; b. 50'; dr. 14'1", B. 11.6 k.
cpl. 119; t. 157; a. 1 3", 4 20mm.; cl. LST-I)

Pontus was laid down as LST-201 by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Co., Seneea, III., 13 July 1942, Iaunched 2 March 1943, placed in reduced commission 24 March 1943 and ferried down the Mississippi River to Algiers, La., and commissioned in full 2 April 1943, Lt. Samuel D. LaRoue, U.S.C.G., in command.

Following shakedown off the Florida coast, LST-£OI, with LCT-264 on her deck got underway for thePacific 22 May 1943. On 11 August see arrived at Brisbane, thence shifting northward to Mackay for partial conversion to a motor torpedo boat tender. After installation of water distillers, machine and carpentry shops, extra generators and a ten ton crane and the embarkation of a Navy repair crew, the LST moved up the Australian coast toward New Guinea. On 18 October she arrived at Milne Bay, completed conversion, and on 18 November continued on to Buna, Morobe, and, finallv, Dreger Harbor. There, until after the fall of Saidor, sfie tended PT boats operating along the coast of New Guinea to cut the Japanese barge supply line to their troops on that island and on New Britain.

In January 1944 Allied forces landed at Saidor and the PTs ranged farther up the coast. LST-201, having survived the almost daily air raids of February, moved up to lessen the distance the torpedo boats were forced to travel to strike at the Japanese. Prior to the Aitape-Hollandia landings (22 April) LST-201 returned to Dreger Harbor for supplies and spare parts, then proceeded to Celeo Island, off Aitape, where she tended MTBRons 7 and 8 as they patrolled between the Driniumor River and Hollandia, and, with the LST as communications base, coordinated efforts with the R.A.A.F. to destroy Japanese ferry barges which landed their troops behind Allied lines at night.

On 15 August 1944, LST-2OI was officially renamed Pontus and designated AGP 20. On the 24th she got underway for Brisbane and a much needed overhaul. On 17 October she sailed again for Mackay to begin working her way back to the forward area, arriving at Mios Woendi 17 November. From there she continued on to Leyte where she tended PTs from 27 November until 6 April 1945. She then carried spare parts to Luzon, whence she steamed south to Samar to tend PTs at Guiuan Harbor. At the end of the month she shifted to Malalag Bay, Mindanao, and in August, to Tawi Tawi to support MTBRon 8 again.

After the cessation of hostilities, PO,Aus performed tending and decommissioning duties at Subic Bay and Guiuan Harbor. On 20 November she sailed for home. She arrived at San Pedro 24 December, continued on to the east coast and reported for inactivation at New York 5 February 1946. Decommissioned 2 April 1946, she was struck from the Navy List 1 May and on 26 November 1947 was transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Pontus earned 3 battle stars during World War II.

The First Mithridatic War resulted in a Roman victory, but it was far from a decisive one. Sulla allowed Mithridates to remain in control of Pontus although the king had to relinquish Asia Minor and agree to the borders between Rome and Pontus that existed before the first conflict. While Sulla wanted peace with Pontus and Mithridates appeared content with the situation, the Roman governor of Asia, Lucius Licinius Murena, had other ideas. Murena was an ambitious man and wanted to restart the war in the hope of winning a quick victory and earning a triumph.

After losing the first war, Mithridates had to contend with rebellions in his kingdom. His armed response concerned Murena who probably believed Rome&rsquos old enemy was trying to rearm in a bid to regain lost territory. Archelaus fanned the flames by convincing Murena that Pontus was preparing an attack on Rome (he had fallen out of favor with Mithridates).

In 83 BC, Murena launched an attack on the town of Comana which was in the kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates sent ambassadors to meet the Roman, and they appealed to the treaty they had in place with Rome. Murena claimed there was no treaty (as no written version existed) and plundered Comana before staying in Cappadocia for the winter. When the weather improved, Murena continued his conquest by taking hundreds of small Pontic villages with little opposition.

He ignored a message from the Roman Senate which ordered him not to attack Mithridates, and when Murena raided Pontus for the second time in 82 BC, the king reacted in the belief that Rome had declared war. Murena faced the general Gordius at the Halys River, and soon, Mithridates arrived with a large army. He attacked Murena and defeated the Roman governor. Murena fled over the mountains and eventually, a message from Sulla resulted in the end of the brief Second Mithridatic War.

Bizarrely, Murena received his triumph despite suffering an embarrassing defeat. Rome and Pontus were officially at peace in 81 BC, but it was an uneasy truce. When Sulla died in 78 BC, another conflict was inevitable as he was one of the last voices for peace. In 75 BC, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia died and left his kingdom to Rome. It was the precursor to war, and in 74 BC, Rome started mobilizing in Asia Minor. Mithridates invaded Bithynia in 73 BC, and the Third Mithridatic War began.

10 Facts: Greek Genocide in Pontus

1.The Greek genocide, part of which is known as the Pontic genocide, was the systematic ethnic cleansing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population from its historic homeland. It was instigated by the government of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek population and it included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches (photo below), summary expulsions, arbitrary execution, and the destruction of Christian Orthodox cultural and religious monuments. By the end of the Greco-Turkish War most of the Greeks of Asia Minor had either fled or had been killed. Those remaining were transferred to Greece under the terms of a population exchange agreement, which formalised the exodus and barred the return of the refugees.

2. Pontian and Anatolian Greeks were victims of a broader Turkish genocidal project aimed at all Christian minorities in the Ottoman Empire. A total of more than 3.5 million Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians were killed from roughly 1914 to 1923. Of this, as many as 1.5 million Greeks may have died either from massacre or exposure. About one million had migrated, some voluntarily but most under coercion. Presently, a miniscule Greek population remains in Turkey.

3. Ancient Historical Context: Pontus is what the Greeks have called the Black sea from times immemorial. The first Greek settlements appeared on its southern coast (modern Turkey and the Caucasus) as early as 800 BC. They were founded by Ionian Greeks, natives of Attica, Anatolia, and the islands of the Aegean. The first city, Sinop, was built in 785 BC. Very soon not only the southern, but also the northern Black sea coast was completely Hellenised. Many renowned Greek men of antiquity, such as Diogenes and Strabo, were born and raised in southern Pontus. In the 4th century BC, an independent Kingdom of Pontus was established on the southern coast of the Black Sea and since that time Pontus began to develop independently from other Greek lands.

4. Modern Historical Context: The Greeks successfully overthrew centuries of Ottoman rule during the War of Independence from 1821 to 1830, establishing the Modern Greek state as it is currently situated at the tip of the Balkan Peninsula. A “Young Turk” movement emerged aiming to turn the Ottoman Empire (which included Pontus) into a homogenous Turkish nation state. By the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman government seriously feared losing its power over Pontus, as it had already with Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. “Drastic measures” of extermination of the Greek element were planned by the “Young Turks” whose slogan was “Turkey for the Turks”. In September 1911, the participants of the Young Turks conference in Thessalonica openly discussed the issue of extermination of the ethnic Christian minorities in Turkey, especially Greeks and Armenians.

5. Beginning in the spring of 1913, the Ottomans implemented a program of expulsions and forcible migrations, focusing in Greeks of the Aegean region and eastern Thrace, whose presence in these areas was deemed a threat to national security. Turkish military units attacked Greek villages forcing their inhabitants to abandon their homes for Greece, being replaced with Muslim refugees. Entering into talks for population exchanges, the Ottoman government adopted a “dual-track mechanism” allowing it to deny responsibility for and prior knowledge of this campaign of intimidation, emptying Christian villages.

6. In the summer of 1914 the Turkish military, assisted by government and army officials, conscripted Greek men of military age from Thrace and western Anatolia into Labour Battalions in which hundreds of thousands died. Sent hundreds of miles into the interior of Anatolia, conscripts were employed in road-making, building, tunnel excavating and other field work, Their numbers were heavily reduced through either privations and ill-treatment or by outright massacre by their Ottoman guards. This policy of persecution and ethnic cleansing was expanded to other regions of the Ottoman including Pontus.

7. Pontian Greeks – women, children, and elderly people – were evicted from their houses in 24 hours, not being allowed to take with them almost anything of their property, and in long columns, under armed convoy, were marched far inland. The deserted villages were plundered and burnt – often before the very eyes of the evicted. On the deportation march, people were treated with utmost cruelty: they did not receive almost any food, were forced to march forward for hours and days on end without rest over the wilderness, under the rain and the snow, so that many of them, unable to endure the hardships, dropped dead from exhaustion and illnesses. The convoy men raped women and young girls, shot people for a slightest reason, and sometimes without a reason at all. Most of the deported died on the way but even those who survived the deportation march, found themselves in a no better situation – the places of destination turned out to be real “white death” camps. In one of such places, the village of Pirk, the deported inhabitants of the city of Tripoli were kept. According to the reports of the survivals, out of 13,000 Pontians who had been sent to Pirk, only 800 survived.

8. In his memoirs, the United States ambassador to the Ottoman Empire between 1913 and 1916 wrote “Everywhere the Greeks were gathered in groups and, under the so-called protection of Turkish gendarmes, they were transported, the larger part on foot, into the interior. Just how many were scattered in this fashion is not definitely known, the estimates varying anywhere from 200,000 up to 1,000,000.” German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats have provided evidence for series of systematic massacres and ethnic cleansing of the Greeks. The accounts describe systematic massacres, rapes and burnings of Greek villages, and attribute intent to senior Ottoman officials, including the Ottoman Prime Minister.

9. At present, the Pontian Genocide is officially recognized only by Greece, Cyprus, Armenia, Sweden, and the American State of New York. This is due to insufficient awareness and, sadly, insufficient interest of the international community. Led by the Greece, the 19th May has been established as Commemoration day of the Pontian Genocide. Interestingly, in response the Turkish government officials claims that describing the events as genocide is “without any historical basis”. A Turkish Foreign Ministry statement states: “Greece) in fact has to apologize to the Turkish people for the large-scale destruction and massacres Greece perpetrated in Anatolia, not only sustains the traditional Greek policy of distorting history, but it also displays that the expansionist Greek mentality is still alive.”

10. Toronto City Council recently passes a Pontian Genocide Motion: That City Council recognize the Pontian Genocide, to honour the memory of the men, women and children who died. Councillor Jim Karygiannis, who moved the motion said, “It is important to remember these moments in our shared history. We must remember those who suffered and perished. We must teach our children the violence face by their ancestors and others. It is only by remembering and teaching the young that we can ensure that these atrocities never happen again.” (Note that the City of Toronto is the first City to pass such a motion and the Government of Canada has yet to recognize the Pontian Greek Genocide.

In Use

When I first unpacked the Denafrips Pontus II DAC, I immediately noticed how heavy it is. At almost 19 pounds, in a case that measures 13” by 13” by 3” tall (with another inch added for the height of the three conical feet), the Pontus is an impressive looking silver-toned box. (Black is also available.) With seven switches and 16 indicator lights on the front panel, it has a look (and feel) of a far more expensive DAC.

The case’s metalwork has attractive curves and angles that are far more pleasing to the eye than a square box shape. The rear panel sports a wide variety of connectivity, including two SPDIF inputs (RCA and 75-ohm coax), two 110-ohm balanced digital inputs on XLR, optical, USB, and I2S via HDMI. Outputs are balanced XLR with a 4.4V level and unbalanced RCA with a 2.2V output. Wow. That’s a helluva lotta options. The IEC power socket is in the clear and centrally located to use that baby elephant trunk sized power cord you got yourself for the holidays, so it’s a breeze to use.

But what about all those buttons and indicator lights on the Denafrips Pontus II? I’m glad you asked.

As is my usual impulsive nature, I plugged the thing in to warm up for a few days, then commenced to get my jams on. It wasn’t until a week or two later in my downstairs lavatory library that I cracked open the manual to see if there were any hidden secrets to learn. Bingo! No wonder there are so many buttons and lights. They all do something.

In addition to the usual lights indicating sample rate, there are buttons to reverse the absolute phase and engage a non-oversampling mode (NOS). I liked not having any reconstruction filter options. I say let somebody else decide the shape of the anti-aliasing filter–I have a hard enough time deciding what to play! However, I did have a bit of fun trying out the NOS versus oversampling option. I felt it was splitting hairs, but the NOS mode seemed a hair more forward and present in some textural manner, Regardless, both ways sounded great. I don’t consider one or the other to be superior simply nice to have an option should the desire for neurotic tweakiness emerge, not that I would ever be like that. Heh.

The same could be said for the absolute phase reversal. I couldn’t hear it change the sound. In my experience, absolute phase audibility has more to do with some speaker systems having drivers or a style of bass loading that is less symmetrical. Your woofers may like pushing out with a positive voltage a little more than going in, but I feel like most systems today don’t care.

Pontus LST-201 - History

a large district in the north of Asia Minor, extending along the coast of the Pontus Euxinus Sea (Pontus), from which circumstance the name was derived. It corresponds nearly to the modern Trebizond. It is three times mentioned in the New Testament -- (Acts 2:9 18:2 1 Peter 1:1) All these passages agree in showing that there were many Jewish residents in the district. As to the annals of Pontus, the one brilliant passage of its history is the life of the great Mithridates. Under Nero the whole region was made of Roman province, bearing the name of Pontus. It was conquered by the Turks in A.D. 1461, and is still under their dominion.

The sea, the northeastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Euxine Sea, west by Galatia and Paphlagonia, south by Cappadocia and part of Armenia, and east by Colchis. It was originally governed by kings, and was in its most flourishing state under Mithridates the Great, who waged a long and celebrated war with the Romans but was at length subdued by Pompey after which Pontus became a province of the Roman empire. The geographer Strabo was born in Amasia, its capital and one of its principal towns, Trapezus, still flourishes under the name of Trebizond. Many Jews resided there, and from time to time "went up to Jerusalem unto the feast," Acts 2:9. The devoted Aquila was a native of Pontus, Acts 18:2 and the gospel was planted there at an early period, 1 Peter 1:1.

pon'-tus (Pontos): Was an important province in the northeastern part of Asia Minor, lying along the south shore of the Black Sea. The name was geographical, not ethnical, in origin, and was first used to designate that part of Cappadocia which bordered on the "Pontus," as the Euxine was often termed. Pontus proper extended from the Halys River on the West to the borders of Colchis on the East, its interior boundaries meeting those of Galatia, Cappadocia and Armenia. The chief rivers besides the Halys were the Iris, Lycus and Thermodon. The configuration of the country included a beautiful but narrow, riparian margin, backed by a noble range of mountains parallel to the coast, while these in turn were broken by the streams that forced their way from the interior plains down to the sea the valleys, narrower or wider, were fertile and productive, as were the wide plains of the interior such as the Chiliokomon and Phanaroea. The mountain slopes were originally clothed with heavy forests of beech, pine and oak of different species, and when the country was well afforested, the rainfall must have been better adequate than now to the needs of a luxuriant vegetation.

The first points in the earliest history of Pontus emerge from obscurity, much as the mountain peaks of its own noble ranges lift their heads above a fog bank. Thus, we catch glimpses of Assyrian culture at Sinope and Amisus, probably as far back as the 3rd millennium B.C. The period of Hittite domination in Asia Minor followed hard after, and there is increasing reason to suppose that the Hittites occupied certain leading city sites in Pontus, constructed the artificial mounds or tumuli that frequently meet the eyes of modern travelers, hewed out the rock tombs, and stamped their character upon the early conditions. The home of the Amazons, those warrior priestesses of the Hittites, was located on the banks of the Thermodon, and the mountains rising behind Terme are still called the "Amazon Range" and the old legends live still in stories about the superior prowess of the modern women living there.

As the Hittite power shrunk in extent and force, by the year 1000 B.C. bands of hardy Greek adventurers appeared from the West sailing along the Euxine main in quest of lands to exploit and conquer and colonize. Cape Jason, which divides the modern mission fields of Trebizond and Marsovan, preserves the memory of the Argonants and the Golden Fleece. Miletus, "greatest of the Ionic towns," sent out its colonists, swarm after swarm, up through the Bosphorus, and along the southern shore of the Black Sea. They occupied Sinope, the northern-most point of the peninsula with the best harbor and the most commanding situation. Sinope was in Paphlagonia, but politically as well as commercially enjoyed intimate relations with the Pontic cities. Settlers from Sinope, reinforced by others from Athens direct, pressed on and founded Amisus, the modern Samsoun, always an important commercial city. Another colony from Sinope founded Trebizond, near which Xenophon and the Ten Thousand reached the sea again after they had sounded the power of Persia and found it hollow at Cunaxa. Among the cities of the interior, picturesque Amasia in the gorge of the Iris River witnessed the birth of Strabo in the 1st century B.C., and to the geographer Strabo, more than to any other man, is due our knowledge of Pontus in its early days. Zille, "built upon the mound of Semiramis," contained the sanctuary of Anaitis, where sacrifices were performed with more pomp than in any other place. Comana, near the modern Tokat, was a city famous for the worship of the great god Ma. Greek culture by degrees took root along the coast it mixed with, and in turn was modified by, the character of the older native inhabitants.

When the Persians established their supremacy in Asia Minor with the overthrow of Lydia, 546 B.C., Pontus was loosely joined to the great empire and was ruled by Persian satraps. Ariobarzanes, Mithradates and Pharnaces are the recurring names in this dynasty of satraps which acquired independence about 363 and maintained it during the Macedonian period. The man that first made Pontus famous in history was Mithradates VI, surnamed Eupator. Mithradates was a typical oriental despot, gifted, unscrupulous, commanding. Born at Sinope 136 B.C. and king at Amasia at the age of twelve, Mithradates was regarded by the Romans as "the most formidable enemy the Republic ever had to contend with." By conquest or alliance he widely extended his power, his chief ally being his son-in-law Dikran, or Tigranes, of Armenia, and then prepared for the impending struggle with Rome. The republic had acquired Pergamus in 133 B.C. and assumed control of Western Asia Minor. There were three Roman armies in different parts of the peninsula when war broke out, 88 B.C. Mithradates attacked them separately and over-threw them all. He then planned and executed a general massacre of all the Romans in Asia Minor, and 80,000 persons were cut down. Sulla by patient effort restored the fortunes of Rome, and the first war ended in a drawn game each party had taken the measure of its antagonist, but neither had been able to oust the other. The second war began in the year 74, with Lucullus as the Roman general. Lucullus took Amisus by siege, chased Mithradates to Cabira, modern Niksar, scattered his army and drove the oriental sultan out of his country. Subsequently on his return to Rome, Lucullus carried from Kerasoun the first cherries known to the western world. In the third war the hero on the Roman side was the masterful Pompey, appointed in 66 B.C. As a result of this war, Mithradates was completely vanquished. His dominions were finally and permanently incorporated in the territories of the Roman republic. The aged king, breathing out wrath and forming impossible plans against his lifelong enemies, died in exile in the Crimea from poison administered by his own hand.

Most of Pontus was for administrative purposes united by the Romans with the province of Bithynia, though the eastern part subsisted as a separate kingdom under Polemon and his house, 36 B.C. to 63 A.D., and the southwestern portion was incorporated with the province of Galatia. It was during the Roman period that Christianity entered this province. There were Jews dwelling in Pontus, devout representatives of whom were in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9). Paul's associates, Aquila and Priscilla, were originally from here (Acts 18:2). The sojourners of the Dispersion are included in the address of the first Epistle of Peter together with the people of four other provinces in Asia Minor (1 Peter 1:1). Local traditions connect the apostles Andrew and Thaddeus with evangelistic labors in this region. They are said to have followed the great artery of travel leading from Caesarea Mazaca to Sinope. Pliny, governor of Bithynia and Pontus 111-113 A.D., found Christians under his authority in great numbers (see BITHYNIA), and Professor Ramsay argues that Pliny's famous letters, Numbers 96 and 97, written to the emperor Traian on the subject of the treatment of Christians under his government (see PERSECUTION), were composed in view of conditions in Amisus (Church in Roman Empire, 224, 225).

The Roman empire in the East was gradually merged into the Byzantine, which is still known to the local inhabitants as the empire of "Roum," i.e. Rome. Pontus shared the vicissitudes of this rather unfortunate government until, in 1204, a branch of the Byzantine imperial family established in Pontus a separate small state with its capital at Trebizond. Here the house of the Grand Comneni, sheltered between the sea and the mountain ranges, maintained its tinsel sovereignty to and beyond the fall of Constantinople. In 1461 Trebizond was taken by Mohammed the Conqueror, since which date Pontus, with its conglomerate population of Turks, Armenians, Greeks and fragments of other races, has been a part of the Ottoman empire.

4195. Pontos -- "a sea," Pontus, a region of Asia Minor
. "a sea," Pontus, a region . Word Origin a prim. word used as proper name Definition
"a sea," Pontus, a region of Asia Minor NASB Word Usage Pontus (2). Pontus. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4195.htm - 6k

1053. Galatia -- Galatia, a district in Asia Minor or a larger .
. Short Definition: Galatia Definition: Galatia, a large Roman province in central
Asia Minor, comprising the districts of Paphlagonia, Pontus Galaticus, Galatia .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1053.htm - 6k

207. Akulas -- Aquila, a Christian
. the Greek way of writing the Latin Aquila, a male proper name the husband of Priscilla
(Prisca), and a Jew, of a family belonging to (Sinope in ?) Pontus. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/207.htm - 6k

4899. suneklektos -- chosen together with
. 1 Pet 1:1,2: " 1 To those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia,
Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, , by the sanctifying work of the Spirit .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4899.htm - 7k

Of what Bishops were at this Time Distinguished in Asia and Pontus .
. Book IV. Chapter XXVII."Of what bishops were at this time distinguished
in Asia and Pontus. Among the bishops were the two Gregorii .
/. /the ecclesiastical history of theodoret/chapter xxvii of what bishops were.htm

. Under the persecution of the second Maximinus, [1] a Christian gentleman of good
position and fair estate in Pontus [2] and Macrina his wife, suffered severe .
//christianbookshelf.org/basil/basil letters and select works/i life.htm

The Pupils of Origen.
. five years, they made such progress in divine things, that although they were still
young, both of them were honored with a bishopric in the churches of Pontus .
/. /pamphilius/church history/chapter xxx the pupils of origen.htm

Preface. Reason for a New Work
. Pontus Lends Its Rough Character to the Heretic Marcion, a Native. . [2338] [I fancy
there is point in this singular, the sky of Pontus being always overcast. .
/. /tertullian/the five books against marcion/chapter i preface reason for a.htm

Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, and the Epistles which He Wrote.
. 6. And writing to the church that is in Amastris, [1254] together with those in
Pontus, he refers to Bacchylides [1255] and Elpistus, as having urged him to .
/. /pamphilius/church history/chapter xxiii dionysius bishop of corinth.htm

Introduction to Oration ii.
. He had been recalled by his father probably during the year ad361 from Pontus, where
he had spent several years in monastic seclusion with his friend S. Basil. .
/. /cyril/lectures of s cyril of jerusalem/introduction to oration ii.htm

Of Gregory Thaumaturgus (The Wonder-Worker).
. and the title of the books attributed to Gregory, persons are liable to confound
very different parties, it is important to notice that Gregory of Pontus is a .
/. /chapter xxvii of gregory thaumaturgus the.htm

Disputes Between Eusebius, Bishop of C??sarea, and Basil the Great .
. This dissension had been the cause of Basil's departing from Pontus, where he
lived conjointly with some monks who pursued the philosophy. .
/. /chapter xv disputes between eusebius bishop.htm

Life at C??sarea Baptism and Adoption of Monastic Life.
. description. [73] Gregory declined to do more than pay a visit to Pontus,
and so is said to have caused Basil much disappointment. [74 .
/. /basil/basil letters and select works/iii life at caesarea baptism and.htm

A Sketch of the Life of S. Gregory of Nyssa.
. No province of the Roman Empire had in those early ages received more eminent Christian
bishops than Cappadocia and the adjoining district of Pontus. .
/. /gregory/gregory of nyssa dogmatic treatises etc/chapter i a sketch of the.htm

Cappadocia (2 Occurrences)
. in eastern Asia Minor, bounded by the Taurus mountains on the South, the Anti-Taurus
and the Euphrates on the East, and, less definitely, by Pontus and Galatia .
/c/cappadocia.htm - 10k

Aquila (7 Occurrences)
. Eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul met on his first
visit to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Along with his wife Priscilla he had fled from .
/a/aquila.htm - 13k

Galatia (6 Occurrences)
. in the north part of the central plateau of Asia Minor, touching Paphlagonia and
Bithynia North, Phrygia West and South, Cappadocia and Pontus Southeast and .
/g/galatia.htm - 23k

Cappado'cia (2 Occurrences)
. Acts 2:9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and those dwelling in Mesopotamia,
in Judea also, and Cappadocia, Pontus, and Asia, (See RSV). .
/c/cappado'cia.htm - 6k

Hittites (39 Occurrences)
. to have been partly Semitic and partly Mongolic and the same mixed race is represented
by the Hittite records recently discovered in Cappadocia and Pontus. .
/h/hittites.htm - 55k

Parthians (1 Occurrence)
. In 66 BC when, after subduing Mithridates of Pontus, Pompey came into Syria, Phraates
III made an alliance with him against Armenia, but was offended by the .
/p/parthians.htm - 16k

Minor (2 Occurrences)
. to distinguish it from the continent of Asia), or Anatolia, is the name given to
the peninsula which reaches out between the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) on the .
/m/minor.htm - 62k

Asia (22 Occurrences)
. to distinguish it from the continent of Asia), or Anatolia, is the name given to
the peninsula which reaches out between the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) on the .
/a/asia.htm - 71k

Dispersion (4 Occurrences)
. Coele-Syria, and into the more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater
part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the remotest corners of Pontus. .
/d/dispersion.htm - 44k

Acts 2:9
Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus , Asia,

Acts 18:2
He found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, who had recently come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome. He came to them,

1 Peter 1:1
Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as foreigners in the Dispersion in Pontus , Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

Hesiod, Theogony 106 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
"The holy race of the deathless gods who are for ever, those that were born of Gaia (Gaea, Earth) and starry Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) and gloomy Nyx (Night) and them that briny Pontos (Pontus, Sea) did rear."

Hesiod, Theogony 126 ff :
"Verily at first Khaos (Chaos, the Chasm) [Air] came to be, but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Gaea, Earth) . . . and dim Tartaros (the Pit) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth, and Eros (Love), fairest among the deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them. From Khaos (Chaos) came forth Erebos (Darkness) and black Nyx (Night) but of Nyx (Night) were born Aither (Aether, Light) and Hemera (Day), whom she conceived and bore from union in love with Erebos. And Gaia (Earth) first bore starry Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven), equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods. And she brought forth long Ourea (Mountains) . . . She bore also the fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontos (Pontus, Sea), without sweet union of love."

Hesiod, Theogony 233 ff :
"And Pontos (Pontus, Sea) begat Nereus, the eldest of his children, who is true and lies not : and men call him the Old Man because he is trusty and gentle and does not forget the laws of righteousness, but thinks just and kindly thoughts. And yet again he got great Thaumas and proud Phorkys (Phorcys), being mated with Gaia (Gaea, Earth), and fair-cheeked Keto (Ceto) and Eurybia who has a heart of flint within her."

Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Fragment 3 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 1165) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
"Aigaion (Aegaeon) was the son of Gaia (Gaea) and Pontos (Pontus) and, having his dwelling in the sea, was an ally of the Titanes (Titans)."

Bacchylides, Fragment 52 (from Tzetzes on Theogony) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
"The four famous Telkhines (Telchines), Aktaios (Actaeus), Megalesios (Megalesius), Ormenos (Ormenus) and Lykos (Lycus), whom Bakkhylides (Bacchylides) calls the children of Nemesis and Tartaros but some others the children of Ge (Gaea) and Pontos (Pontus)."

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 88 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"[The Titan Prometheus calls upon all of creation to witness his torment :] &lsquoO you bright sky of heaven (dios aithêr), you swift-winged breezes (takhypteroi pnoiai), you river-waters (pêgai potamôn), and infinite laughter of the waves of sea (pontos), O universal mother Earth (panmêtôr gê), and you, all-seeing orb of the sun (panoptês kyklos hêlios), to you I call! See what I, a god, endure from the gods.&rsquo"

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 431 ff :
"[Okeanos (Oceanus) addresses the tormented Titan Prometheus :] &lsquoThe waves of the sea (pontos) utter a cry as they fall, the deep laments, the black abyss of Aides [Haides] rumbles in response, and the streams of pure-flowing rivers (potamoi) lament your piteous pain.&rsquo"

Pontus LST-201 - History

Acts 18:2 He found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, who had recently come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome. He came to them,

1 Peter 1:1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as foreigners in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

pon'-tus (Pontos): Was an important province in the northeastern part of Asia Minor, lying along the south shore of the Black Sea. The name was geographical, not ethnical, in origin, and was first used to designate that part of Cappadocia which bordered on the "Pontus," as the Euxine was often termed. Pontus proper extended from the Halys River on the West to the borders of Colchis on the East, its interior boundaries meeting those of Galatia, Cappadocia and Armenia. The chief rivers besides the Halys were the Iris, Lycus and Thermodon. The configuration of the country included a beautiful but narrow, riparian margin, backed by a noble range of mountains parallel to the coast, while these in turn were broken by the streams that forced their way from the interior plains down to the sea the valleys, narrower or wider, were fertile and productive, as were the wide plains of the interior such as the Chiliokomon and Phanaroea. The mountain slopes were originally clothed with heavy forests of beech, pine and oak of different species, and when the country was well afforested, the rainfall must have been better adequate than now to the needs of a luxuriant vegetation.

Unique deities [ edit ]

These deities are available to Pontus , if the player started as Kios , and it has decided to adopt Hellenic traditions and the Embrace Graeco-Pontic Omens decision is taken (to retain access to them, Pontus must be Hellenic, Cybelene, Zoroastrian, or own the deity's holy site):

Deity Category Passive effect Omen effect Apotheosis effect Holy site
Zeus Stratios War +3% Morale of Armies +8% Manpower Recovery Speed +2.50 Religious Advances progress multiplied by the deity’s Zeal, with a minimum of +5 and a maximum of +25
Selene Culture +7.50% Civic Tech Investment +8% Research Points Up to 5 pops in a random territory convert to the deity’s faith

Pontus LST-201 - History

At Close Quarters
PT Boats in the
United States Navy by
USNR (Retired)

Part 4
Southwest Pacific--Conquest of New Guinea

1. To the Buna Campaign
2. The Cruise of the "HILO"
3. Tufi
4. Task Group 70.1
5. Battle of the Bismarck Sea
6. Some Barges and a Fire
7. Douglas Harbor and Morobe
8. Thursday Island
9. Kiriwina, Woodlark, and Nassau Bay
10. Actions in Huon Gulf
11. Lae, Salamaua, and Finschhafen
12. Morobe: October and November
13. A Letter from General Berryman
14. Tenders, Staff, and Logistics
15. Kiriwina
16. Dreger Harbor
17. Action on a Reef
18. A Submersible
19. Planes at Arawe
20. Actions along the New Guinea Coast
21. Expansion
22. Destruction in Hansa Bay
23. The Admiralties
24. Rein Bay and Talasea
25. New Britain: South Coast
26. Saidor
27. Aitape
28. Mios Woendi
29. Operations in Geelvink Bay
30. Amsterdam Island
31. End of the New Guinea Campaign


The northern coast of modern Turkey, with its shores on the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) actually came into existence as the country of Pontus (meaning Sea) in contemporary Roman times. Originally part of that more central territory called Cappadocia, the region which was naturally secured by surrounding mountain ranges and the sea, was created in the aftermath of the death of Alexander.

Pontus had been largely colonized by Greeks for several centuries prior to the campaigns of Alexander, but his conquests gave Hellenization a firm hold over the inhabitants. Colonists founded flourishing trade cities all over the coast, including Sinope, Trapezus, Cerasus, Side, Cotyora, Amisus, and Apsarus. Prior to the Greeks, however, Scythians and other regional peoples such as the Hittites and Persians dominated the culture.

One such tribe, the Chalybes, are credited in some ancient sources as being the first people to use coal in iron furnaces, thereby creating steel, although they certainly didn't understand the complete concept.

Pontus as its own state was founded by Mithridates I in the dynastic struggles that followed the death of Alexander. Between 302 BC and 296 BC, Mithridates, the son of a Persian satrap servicing one of Alexander's former generals (Antigonus), took complete control and established a dynasty that would last until the coming of the Romans. The 5th ruler of that dynasty, Pharnaces, who ruled between 185 and 169 BC, and in the wake of Roman victories over Macedonia and the Seleucids of Syria, established allied relations with this new Mediterranean power.

These friendly relations, however, would crumble quickly with the coming of one of the greatest enemies in Roman history. Mithridates VI, who came to power in 120 BC, would prove to be a resourceful and powerful regional authority. Over the course of the first 30 years of his reign, Mithridates methodically captured and added neighboring kingdoms to his own realm. Though opposed by the Romans in theory, little was done due mainly to wars in Africa (Jugurtha), continuing social disorder, and the crisis of the Germanic (Cimbri and Teuton) invasions.

By 88 BC, social and political turmoil in Rome left the door open for Mithridates to conduct a major invasion west into Roman territory. Taking Asia Minor and murdering as many as 80,000 Roman citizens along with up to 150,000 allies, then crossing into Greece, Mithridates increased his kingdom and power virtually unopposed. Rome however would not sleep for long, and the political disorder would eventually see the rise to power of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In a campaign (fully detailed in the Mithridatic War and therefore not recounted here) lasting from 88 to 85 BC, Sulla punished Mithridates and those who supported him, but renewed political problems cut the campaign short. A deal was reached with Mithridates leaving him dangerously still in power while Sulla returned to Rome.

Though he never regained the same level of threat, Mithridates continued to be a thorn in the Roman's side for the next 20 years. While he managed to shape a great kingdom out of his early conquests, his invasions eventually led not only to his own final defeat, but the complete absorption of Pontus into the Roman sphere of influence. Finally, in 63 BC, after the conquests of Pompey the Great and his final settlements, Pontus was annexed as a joint province with neighboring Bithynia. In the time of Julius Caesar, however, Pontus re-emerged on the world stage with the destruction of Pharnaces at Zela in 47 BC. With this victory, Caesar immortalized the term Veni Vidi Vici ("I came, I saw, I conquered") and secured the mostly peaceful existence of Pontus as a Roman province. Though it would undergo various territorial adjustments over time, including the diocese reforms of Diocletion (late 3rd century AD), Pontus would remain a part of the Roman and Byzantine empires until the 15th century.

As previously suggested, the people of Pontus were well known smiths, making iron and steel resources as well as many finished metal products into regular export goods. The economy, however, was widely diverse with varying terrain and topography. The fertile plains were lush with fruits of all kinds, including cherries which are said (according to Lucullus) to have been first brought to Europe from Pontus. Wine, wood, honey, wax, grain and commodities of all sorts rounded out a prosperous trading environment.

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