Johanna Wolf

Johanna Wolf


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Johanna Wolf was born in Munich on 1st June, 1900. After answering an advertisement she found work with the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). Her first job was to work for Dietrich Eckart. After he died in 1923 she worked for Gregor Strasser, Rudolf Hess and Wilhelm Brückner.

Adolf Hitler become Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Wolf joined his Liaison Staff in Berlin. Hitler installed himself in the Radziwill Palace. She shared her duties with Christa Schroeder. According to Schroeder: "His study, the library, his bedroom and later, alongside it, Eva Braun's apartment were all on the first floor. Directly opposite the door to Hitler's study a couple of steps led to a long corridor, beyond which was the so-called adjutancy wing with the rooms for Hitler's aides. The first room was the Staircase Room (Treppenzimmer), where at least one of us would be permanently on standby, regardless of the hour, should Hitler need to give a dictation. Then came the rooms of Julius Schaub, Hitler's rather unprepossessing factotum, Dr Dietrich (Reich press officer), Sepp Dietrich (commander of SS-Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, Hitler's personal bodyguard unit) and Hitler's chief adjutant, Wilhelm Brückner."

Karl Brandt claimed that Wolf was easier to work with than Christa Schroeder: "Fräulein Schroeder was a different kind of person from Fräulein Wolf. At the beginning of the war this pair alone handled all Hitler's secretarial business.... She (Schroeder) speaks her mind... Clever, critical and intelligent, Schroeder had a turnover of work which no other secretary ever matched." Hitler was very fond of her and nicknamed her "Wolferl".

On 20th April, 1945, Adolf Hitler ordered Wolf, Christa Schroeder, Traudl Junge, Dr Theodor Morell, Albert Bormann, Dr. Hugo Blaschke, Admiral Karl-Jesco von Puttkamer and several others to leave Berlin by aircraft. Wolf was arrested and taken prisoner on 23rd May in Bad Tölz when the Americans occupied Berchtesgaden. Together with Schroeder, she remained a prisoner until 14th January 1948.

Unlike other secretaries such as Schroeder and Junge, Wolf refused to give interviews about Hitler. Nor did she write her memoirs. However, she did tell Leni Riefenstahl that Hitler was not aware of all the terrible things that were happening in Nazi Germany during his period of office and blamed others such as Heinrich Himmler for the atrocities.

Johanna Wolf died in Munich on 5th June 1985.

We left the bunker eventually at about 1430, slowly plodding up the sixty steps into the daylight. A picture of appalling destruction greeted us. The Berghof had been badly damaged. The walls still stood (only one side had been burst open) but the metal roof hung in ribbons. Doors and windows had disappeared. Inside the house the floor was thickly covered with debris and much of the furniture had been demolished. All the ancillary buildings had been destroyed, the paths scrambled to rubble, trees felled at the root. Nothing green remained, the scene was a crater landscape.

Since there was nothing habitable, Greta Fegelein and Herta Schneider moved into Eva Braun's bunker, Johanna Wolf and I into Hitler's. A few days later Herta and Greta, after spending the intervening period packing, left by lorry and car from Hitler's ready vehicle park on the Berg for Garmisch, where Herta lived. They had filled many trunks with Eva Braun's clothing and left them at Schloss Fischhorn near Zell am See where there was an SS post. A short while before, Eva Braun had written to her sister: "We await hourly the end. We do not intend to fall alive into the hands of the enemy," and she concluded with the hope that Greta "should have no worries, she would see her husband again." Here Eva was either mistaken, or she wished to put her sister's mind at rest.

A day or so later Johanna Wolf went by car to Miesbach to ask friends if they would put us up temporarily. Two men from the SS-Hauptamt whom we had got to know at the Berghof mentioned the possibility of getting false papers for us, also possible lodgings.


A Legacy is Born

Every story has a beginning, ours began in 1834 with one simple concept from our visionary founder Philip Wolf, “It is logical to protect one’s possessions by storing and safeguarding them in a fine quality case.” Journey through the milestones of WOLF as we grew into a global brand through our commitment to honouring people’s stories and the priceless jewellery and timepieces they entrust to us.

German silversmith Philip Wolf I created the company in 1834 when he discovered that his silver pieces sold more when presented in beautiful boxes. As he began selling more boxes than silver, he refocused his designs creating sophisticated jewellery cases which not only looked good but protect meaningful treasures, a practice we have perfected along the way.

Having great respect for tradition and family, Philip Wolf I based the design of the family crest on the Hanau coat of arms, a town where he and generations before him had grown up.

Years later WOLF would use parts of the seal in an exclusive collection that was made in Spain and bore the name “WOLF 1834”.

The only image of the workshop and home of Philip Wolf I is in this painting. Hanau was in large part destroyed by British airstrikes in 1945. Home is where the heart is and certainly this is where the heart and soul of Philip developed and where the WOLF box story began.

Philip Wolf II was born in 1869, by his mid-teens he was already an accomplished box-maker. Travelling to Sweden one summer he fell in love with the country, immigrating in 1895. In 1910 he married the love of his life, Ida Wilhemina, perhaps the most important person in the history of the Wolf family.

Philip Wolf III and his brother Ernst took to the business at a very early age. In 1936 and now in his early 20’s Ernst decided to spread his wings to the north and so moved to Stockholm where he started his own specialised box making firm, “Stockholms Etui & Koffertfabrik”. The company continues today having been passed to Ernst’s son, Robert, who works alongside his son, Christopher.

Philip Wolf III – A masterful inventor and businessman

Philip Wolf III designed and developed numerous new production techniques, hinges that would staple through wood and he was the inventor of the music box with turning ballerina.

Jubilation as the war came to an end but great sadness as Philip Wolf II who had fallen ill with a lung ailment twenty years prior died.

Having lost two of her children to the Spanish flu Ida was left with Philip III and his brother Ernst to care for so without delay she took the reins of the business, overseeing production and sales, travelling great distances through Sweden by rail and horse-drawn carriage. Ida’s sheer will and determination is what kept the WOLF business alive through a most difficult time in history.

“Never stop innovating” words of wisdom from Philip Wolf III

Philip knew that connecting with his customers who stretched the length and breadth of Scandinavia was a top priority, in person was best but how else could he remain top of mind? In 1950 he started a marketing technique still in use today , “WOLF Nyhtererna” - “WOLF News” was a booklet of sorts in which he displayed his new products and ideas. Truly innovative for 1950.

A consummate fisherman and the person who started the Swedish Salmon & Trout Association, Philip Wolf III did some of his greatest thinking standing alone in the fresh running waters of rivers near his home. One day in 1957 he pierced his thumb with a hook. The barb on the hook made it difficult to extract but it gave him an idea for a new type of hinge. A hinge that would be pressed inside a slit cavity of a box, the long axis of the hinge would have “barbs”, like a hook, that would be pressed out from the side of the hinge. Push the hinge in and the barbs would lie flat, try to pull the hinge out and the barbs would catch and press into the walls of the wood slot, fixing them securely inside.

Philip Wolf III was awarded a patent for the design, it expired many years ago but the type of hinge he designed are still used today.

Born in 1936, Philip Wolf IV took immediately to the box business, helping his father as a young boy with making samples and spending time at the factory. His love of aircraft already showing as he spent hours gazing at the aircraft at Sturup airfield. His love of the technical and mechanical fully came to light when he took the reins of the company years later.

By the late 1950's Philip had completed a degree and later in 1960 moved to England after meeting Judie, they married after a week of knowing each other!

Now in UK, Philip IV was given the edict by his father to build a factory and so plans were developed to start box production in Ennis, County Clare, Ireland. The factory was modest, a few small single story buildings and a handful of local people who would make the boxes for WOLF customers. Pictured is Philip Wolf and Bernie Maurer with some of the workers from the factory with their very first order bound for America. Production came to a halt in 1962 as it was decided to build a bigger facility in South Wales.

A great business opportunity presented itself to Philip Wolf IV, to design and build his own factory in UK. The site chosen was Llanelli, South Wales and after a year of planning, ground was broken in early 1967 and the 100,000 sq ft facility was completed in 1968.

1968 WOLF showcased in Selfridges, London

Harry Selfridge opened Selfridges on 15th March 1909, some 59 years later Philip Wolf IV opened what would be considered a “shop in shop” in Selfridges, a major step for the brand.The display included two full windows looking out onto Oxford Street.

35 Old Bond Street office expansion

Having resided in Mayfair for nearly 5 years the West End offices were expanded with a new showroom and more space for sales support staff. Positioned in walking distance from many of WOLF’s customers, H Samuel, Ernest Jones, Green Shield Stamps to name but a few. The building now houses Gucci’s West End flagship store.

WOLF receives Swedish Royal Warrant and to celebrate launches the “Design Philipp” Collection of men’s and ladies jewellery boxes and accessories.

Iron Lady meets The Gipper

Former Governor of California Ronald Reagan and Opposition Leader Margaret Thatcher meet and gifts are exchanged. A silver dollar for her and a pair of bear-design silver cufflinks for him. The cufflinks packaged beautifully in a WOLF-made box!

Philip Wolf's IV's 1941 Beechcraft Staggerwing (reg G-BDGK), rebuilt in 1982. Philip flew his beloved Staggerwing from Biggin Hill with customers and suppliers to the factory in Wales, saving hours of driving on the road

Another milestone achieved

Four generations strong with another soon to join, WOLF celebrates 150 years as a box making family. Never wavering from the edict of Philip Wolf I to ensure “ones prized possessions are stored in a fine quality case".

As leisure and business travel becomes a more frequent part of everyone’s life, Philip perceives a need for a watch roll that is compact, strong and practical. After studying sizes of watches and luggage that people travelled with at the time and many samples and prototypes later, the WOLF tubular constructed watch roll is born and quickly becomes a mainstay of WOLF’s traveling watch-care collection.

Years later this great design would be improved upon by the next generation…..

The 5th generation joins the company

Philip Wolf IV was a great designer and salesman, he was also a wonderful teacher. Taking Simon Philip at 21 years old, under his wing. Pictured here in Malmö on a visit to the Swedish factory. A first step to understanding sample making and factory production.

National Exhibition expansion and WOLF’s largest stand to date

Simon picture between his sister Nina and Father whilst they attended the biggest trade show in UK in the newly expanded luxury brands hall of the NEC.

With the economy and business flourishing in England, the time was right for the Wolf Family to assume the biggest challenge ever undertaken: tackling the USA and Canadian Markets. It was up to Simon Philip Wolf V, with guidance from his father Philip IV, to persevere through difficult challenges and achieve remarkable success.

WOLF’s Swedish and UK factories were now working with many major watch, jewellery and other brands. Tissot, Zodiac, Citizen, Omega, Certina, even making the coasters for Concorde. Brands that demand quality and great design came to WOLF.

Today WOLF partners with numerous watch and jewellery brands providing them with 100% accurate watch winders and jewellery cases that protect jewellery from tarnishing. Innovating designs and making the impossible, possible.

WOLF’s first stand at the New York Now show. Showcasing the Design Philipp brand for the first time

Philip Wolf IV and V present brand to Bailey Banks and Biddle (part of Zale Corporation) and management agrees to launch WOLF in all stores.

WOLF moves to California in early 90’s and by 1997 has opened prestigious offices overlooking Pacific Coast Highway and Malibu Surfrider Beach. Pictured here is the team in1998.

July 24, Los Angeles Gift Show

WOLF debuts newest collections of leather jewellery boxes, South Molton in red lizard embossed leather becomes the runaway success.

WOLF makes major commitment to Asia Pacific region by opening Hong Kong office, showroom and warehouse.


The Days Leading Up To Adolf Hitler’s Death

Public Domain The Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad was a turning point for the Red Army. Germany would remain on the defensive until its defeat in 1945.

In 1945, Germany was on its knees — and few were surprised. The writing had been on the wall for two years, ever since the Soviet Union defeated the Germans at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943. The next year, Allied forces landed at Normandy and began pushing the Nazis back toward Berlin.

By July 1944, a handful of German military commanders were plotting to assassinate Hitler. By casting aside the dictator, they hoped to negotiate favorable peace terms. But their assassination attempt failed, and Hitler executed 4,000 Germans whom he believed were involved.

As Soviet troops advanced toward Berlin in early 1945, other Allied forces — like the U.S. — were also closing in. Meanwhile, Hitler seemed to vanish. American military forces initially believed that Hitler was hiding away in the Bavarian Alps at his fortress known as the “Eagle’s Nest.”

U.S. Army American troops posing at Hitler’s retreat in the Bavarian Alps, known as the “Eagle’s Nest.”

In March 1945, American forces in southern Germany heard reports that as many as 300,000 Nazi loyalists were hiding in the mountains, supplied by an underground weapons factory. Dwight D. Eisenhower, then serving as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, feared that they would carry out a guerrilla campaign and drag the war out for years rather than surrender.

In reality, the Nazi propaganda machine was working overtime to hide the true whereabouts of Hitler as the war effort in Germany fell apart. Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels took to the radio to declare that Hitler’s “Werewolves” would defend the dictator to the death: “We Werewolves consider it our supreme duty to kill, to kill, and to kill.”

Meanwhile, Hitler had never left Berlin — he’d been hiding in his bunker for most of 1945. When Allied forces captured Wehrmacht officer Kurt Dittmar, he revealed that the Führer was still in Berlin. Eerily, he also predicted how Hitler would die: “Hitler will either be killed there or commit suicide.”

In the coming days, Dittmar’s conjecture would prove to be solid.


Johanna Wolf

Wolf liittyi Hitlerin henkilökohtaiseen sihteeristöön 1929 konekirjoittajana. Samoihin aikoihin hän liittyi myös kansallissosialistiseen puolueeseen. Natsien valtaannousun jälkeen tammikuussa 1933 hänestä tuli Hitlerin yksityiskanslian vanhempi sihteeri ja Hitleriä seuranneen sisäpiirin jäsen.

Kun Kolmas valtakunta oli luhistumassa, Hitler päätti pysyä Berliinissä viimeiseen saakka. Hän lähetti Wolfin ja Christa Schöderin Berchtesgadenin asuntoonsa Baijeriin. Siellä heidän tuli hävittää hänen henkilökohtaiset paperinsa, ennen kuin liittoutuneet valtaisivat alueen.

Yhdysvaltalaisten vallattua Berchtesgadenin Wolf jäi vangiksi 23. toukokuuta Bad Tölzissa. Hän pysyi vankina Schröderin kanssa aina vapauttamiseensa 14. tammikuuta 1948 saakka. Wolf muutti Kaufbeureniin ja kuoli Münchenissä 1985.

Wolf pysyi lojaalina eikä muiden Hitlerin sihteereiden lailla paljastanut mitään uraansa tai Hitleriin liittyvää tietoa. Hänelle tarjottiin suurta rahasummaa muistelmiensa kirjoittamisesta 1970-luvulla, mutta Wolf kieltäytyi. Hän sanoi olleensa nimenomaan yksityissihteeri ja hänen velvollisuudentajunsa kielsi entistä työnantajaansa koskevat paljastukset.


Under 1920-talet arbetade Wolf för bland andra Alexander Glaser, ledamot av den bayerska lantdagen. Senare var hon sekreterare åt Rudolf Hess och Wilhelm Brückner. Efter Adolf Hitlers utnämning till Tysklands rikskansler var hon knuten till Hitlers kansli och sedan även till Hitlers personliga adjutantur. Under andra världskriget var hon posterad vid Hitlers olika högkvarter.

I andra världskrigets slutskede var hon i Adolf Hitlers bunker, vilken hon lämnade den 22 april 1945. Tillsammans med bland andra Christa Schroeder, Albert Bormann, Karl-Jesco von Puttkamer, Theodor Morell och Hugo Blaschke flög hon från Berlin-Tempelhofs flygplats till Obersalzberg. Wolf greps av de allierade i Bad Tölz och satt internerad till januari 1948.


Johanna Wolf

Wolf liittyi Hitlerin henkilökohtaiseen sihteeristöön 1929 konekirjoittajana. Samoihin aikoihin hän liittyi myös kansallissosialistiseen puolueeseen. Natsien valtaannousun jälkeen tammikuussa 1933 hänestä tuli Hitlerin yksityiskanslian vanhempi sihteeri ja Hitleriä seuranneen sisäpiirin jäsen.

Kun Kolmas valtakunta oli luhistumassa, Hitler päätti pysyä Berliinissä viimeiseen saakka. Hän lähetti Wolfin ja Christa Schöderin Berchtesgadenin asuntoonsa Baijeriin. Siellä heidän tuli hävittää hänen henkilökohtaiset paperinsa, ennen kuin liittoutuneet valtaisivat alueen.

Yhdysvaltalaisten vallattua Berchtesgadenin Wolf jäi vangiksi 23. toukokuuta Bad Tölzissa. Hän pysyi vankina Schröderin kanssa aina vapauttamiseensa 14. tammikuuta 1948 saakka. Wolf muutti Kaufbeureniin ja kuoli Münchenissä 1985.

Wolf pysyi lojaalina eikä muiden Hitlerin sihteereiden lailla paljastanut mitään uraansa tai Hitleriin liittyvää tietoa. Hänelle tarjottiin suurta rahasummaa muistelmiensa kirjoittamisesta 1970-luvulla, mutta Wolf kieltäytyi. Hän sanoi olleensa nimenomaan yksityissihteeri ja hänen velvollisuudentajunsa kielsi entistä työnantajaansa koskevat paljastukset.


Under 1920-talet arbetade Wolf för bland andra Alexander Glaser, ledamot av den bayerska lantdagen. Senare var hon sekreterare åt Rudolf Hess och Wilhelm Brückner. Efter Adolf Hitlers utnämning till Tysklands rikskansler var hon knuten till Hitlers kansli och sedan även till Hitlers personliga adjutantur. Under andra världskriget var hon posterad vid Hitlers olika högkvarter.

I andra världskrigets slutskede var hon i Adolf Hitlers bunker, vilken hon lämnade den 22 april 1945. Tillsammans med bland andra Christa Schroeder, Albert Bormann, Karl-Jesco von Puttkamer, Theodor Morell och Hugo Blaschke flög hon från Berlin-Tempelhofs flygplats till Obersalzberg. Wolf greps av de allierade i Bad Tölz och satt internerad till januari 1948.


Biography

Wolf was born in Munich. She attended primary and commercial school. [1] From 1922 through 1928, she worked for Dr. Alexander Glaser of the Bavarian Diet. [1] She then worked for Gregor Strasser in the Nazi Party Gau headquarters of Lower Bavaria-Upper Palatinate. [1] Wolf joined Hitler's personal secretariat in the autumn of 1929 as a typist, at which time she also became a member of the Nazi Party. [1] Prior to 1933, she also performed secretarial work for Rudolf Hess and Wilhelm Brückner, who at the time was Hitler's chief adjutant and a bodyguard. [1]

When Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933 she became a senior secretary in his Private Chancellery. Wolf, Hitler’s senior secretary, was one of his oldest and longest tenured secretaries. While he addressed his other secretaries formally as “Frau” or “Fräulein”, he called her “Wölfin” meaning She-Wolf because of his obsession with wolves. [2] Ms. Wolf and Hitler had a very close relationship. She was often thought of as the best possible source for people to go about Hitler. Wolf was a dedicated Nazi and a trusted member of Hitler's entourage. Wolf lived at the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) near Rastenburg, Adolf Hitler's World War II Eastern Front military headquarters from 1941 until he and his staff departed for the last time on 20 November 1944. [3] When Hitler withdrew his headquarters to the Führerbunker in Berlin in January 1945, she went with him and his staff. [4] [5] The Führerbunker was located beneath Hitler's New Reich Chancellery garden in central Berlin. It became the epicentre of the Nazi regime until the end of April 1945. Before late April 1945, Hitler would regularly have lunch with Wolf and fellow secretary, Christa Schroeder. [6]

On the night of 21–22 April 1945, Hitler, having decided to stay and die in Berlin, sent Wolf and Schroeder by aircraft of the Fliegerstaffel des Führers out of Berlin to Salzburg and then to his house at Berchtesgaden in Bavaria. [7] A few days later down in the Führerbunker, Hitler married Eva Braun shortly before they committed suicide. [8]

Capture

Wolf stayed at Berchtesgaden until 2 May and then traveled to her mother's residence in Bad Tölz. [1] She was arrested and taken prisoner on 23 May in Bad Tölz by American troops. Together with Schroeder, she remained a prisoner until 14 January 1948. Wolf moved to Kaufbeuren afterwards and died in Munich on 5 June 1985 at the age of 85. [1]

Loyalty to Hitler

Although Wolf served under Hitler for many years, unlike other secretaries such as Traudl Junge and Christa Schroeder, she refused to consent to any interviews or reveal any information, even during the 1970s when she was offered a large amount of money to write her memoirs. Whenever asked to do so, Wolf stated that she was a "private" secretary and believed it was her duty never to reveal anything about Hitler. When Wolf was taken prisoner, German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl eventually got her to disclose some information about Hitler. Wolf revealed that people close to Hitler were not able to escape his magnetism until his death, even though he was quite emaciated. She was so loyal to Hitler that she wanted to die with him in the Führerbunker, but departed because Hitler urged her to leave for the sake of her 80-year-old mother. He forced her and others to leave on the last flights out of Berlin. [9] She claimed that Hitler was not aware of all the terrible things that were happening in Germany during his reign, that fanatics exerted more and more influence on him, and that they gave orders Hitler knew nothing about. [10]


Johanna Wolf

Johanna Wolf (1añ a viz Even 1900 e München - 5 a viz Even 1985 e München) a voe unan eus sekretourezed Hitler.

E 1929 e voe degemeret evel bizskriverez gant Hitler, ha war-un-dro e teuas da vezañ ezel eus ar strollad nazi. Pa voe anvet Hitler da gañseller e miz Genver 1933 e teuas-hi da vezañ sekretourez kentañ ar c'hañsellerezh. Dont a reas neuze da vezañ unan eus an dud a oa tost ouzh Hitler. E-touez ar re az eas da repuiñ er Führerbunker e-pad emgann Berlin e voe ivez.

D'an 22 a viz Ebrel 1945 e tivizas Hitler chom e Berlin hag en em zistruj. Goulenn a reas gant Wolf ha Christa Schroeder mont betek e di e Berchtesgaden e Bavaria dezho da gavout ha da zistruj an dielloù a oa eno a-raok m'en en gavje an Amerikaned. Wolf ha Schroeder a voe tapet en deiz war-lerc'h e Bad Tölz, pa oa an Amerikaned oc'h aloubiñ Berchtesgaden. Dieubet e voent d'ar 14 a viz Genver 1948.

Goude-se e tilojas da Gaufbeuren hag e varvas e München e 1985.

Sekretourezed zo evel Schroeder pe Traudl Junge a asantas komz diwar-benn o labour pe diwar-benn Hitler. Wolf a nac'has en ober a-hed he buhez. Er bloavezhioù 1970 e voe kinniget ur sammad argant bras dezhi evit ma skrivfe hec'h eñvorennoù, met nac'hañ a reas hag e lavaras ne oa nemet ur sekretourez prevez.


Gray Wolves in the Western Great Lakes States

Gray wolf at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Wisconsin.

Trump Administration Returns Management and Protection of Gray Wolves to States and Tribes Following Successful Recovery Efforts

More than 45 years after gray wolves were first listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the Trump Administration and its many conservation partners are announcing the successful recovery of the gray wolf and its delisting from the ESA. U.S. Secretary of the Interior David L. Bernhardt was at the Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge to announce that state and tribal wildlife management agency professionals will resume responsibility for sustainable management and protection of delisted gray wolves in states with gray wolf populations, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) monitors the species for five years to ensure the continued success of the species.

Service Holds Public Hearing on Proposed Delisting of Gray Wolves

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service held a public open house and public hearing on the proposed rule to remove the gray wolf from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife under the Endangered Species Act. The open house and hearing were held in Brainerd, Minnesota on June 25, 2019.

Service Extends Comment Period on Proposed Delisting of Gray Wolves

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is extending by 60 days the public comment period on a proposed rule to remove the gray wolf from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife under the Endangered Species Act. The public comment period on the proposed rule that published on March 15, 2019 will now close at midnight on July 15, 2019.

Department of the Interior Celebrates Recovery of the Gray Wolf with Proposal to Return Management to States and Tribes

If a Final Decision is Made that Federal Protections are no Longer Warranted, We Will Focus Conservation Efforts on Species Still in Need of ESA Protections, Says Acting Secretary

The gray wolf, an iconic species of the American West, had all but disappeared from landscape in the lower 48 states by the early 20th century. Now it roams free in nine states and is stable and healthy throughout its current range. This constitutes one of the greatest comebacks for an animal in U.S. conservation history. Today, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is re-affirming the success of this recovery with a proposal to remove all gray wolves from protection under Endangered Species Act (ESA).

Gray Wolf Biology and Ecology

Social animals that live in packs, wolves howl to communicate among themselves and to mark territory. They are predators at the top of the food chain with no predators other than humans.

History of Decline, Protection and Recovery

Photo courtesy of Hilary Cooley

Historically found in most of the lower 48 states, at the time the gray wolf was listed as endangered in 1973 the only reproducing population in the U.S. (outside of Alaska) was in northeastern Minnesota.

Chronology of Federal Actions

Photo by Scott Flaherty USFWS

From inclusion in the list of species threatened with extinction under the Endangered species Conservation Act of 1966 to present, a timeline of Federal Actions affecting the wolf in the Western Great Lakes States.

Population Monitoring Results

As wolves expanded from Minnesota into Wisconsin and from Wisconsin and Canada into Michigan, the states have monitored their wolf populations.

State Wolf Management Plans

As wolf range expanded in the western Great Lakes states and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began the regulatory process to remove Endangered Species Act protection, the states of Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin prepared wolf management plans.

Find Locations Near You

The Midwest Region includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin. Find a location near you and plan your visit today »


Watch the video: СЕНСАЦИОННЫЙ МЕТОД ЛЕЧЕНИЯ РАКА доктора Йоханны БудвигJohanna BudwigTEFI ГЕРМАНИЯ


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