Industrial Revolution: Definitions, Causes and Inventions

Industrial Revolution: Definitions, Causes and Inventions


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The Industrial Revolution marked a period of development in the latter half of the 18th century that transformed largely rural, agrarian societies in Europe and America into industrialized, urban ones.

Goods that had once been painstakingly crafted by hand started to be produced in mass quantities by machines in factories, thanks to the introduction of new machines and techniques in textiles, iron making and other industries.


Fueled by the game-changing use of steam power, the Industrial Revolution began in Britain and spread to the rest of the world, including the United States, by the 1830s and ‘40s. Modern historians often refer to this period as the First Industrial Revolution, to set it apart from a second period of industrialization that took place from the late 19th to early 20th centuries and saw rapid advances in the steel, electric and automobile industries.

England: Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution

Thanks in part to its damp climate, ideal for raising sheep, Britain had a long history of producing textiles like wool, linen and cotton. But prior to the Industrial Revolution, the British textile business was a true “cottage industry,” with the work performed in small workshops or even homes by individual spinners, weavers and dyers.

Starting in the mid-18th century, innovations like the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, the water frame and the power loom made weaving cloth and spinning yarn and thread much easier. Producing cloth became faster and required less time and far less human labor.

More efficient, mechanized production meant Britain’s new textile factories could meet the growing demand for cloth both at home and abroad, where the nation’s many overseas colonies provided a captive market for its goods. In addition to textiles, the British iron industry also adopted new innovations.

Chief among the new techniques was the smelting of iron ore with coke (a material made by heating coal) instead of the traditional charcoal. This method was both cheaper and produced higher-quality material, enabling Britain’s iron and steel production to expand in response to demand created by the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15) and the later growth of the railroad industry.

Impact of Steam Power

An icon of the Industrial Revolution broke onto the scene in the early 1700s, when Thomas Newcomen designed the prototype for the first modern steam engine. Called the “atmospheric steam engine,” Newcomen’s invention was originally applied to power the machines used to pump water out of mine shafts.

In the 1760s, Scottish engineer James Watt began tinkering with one of Newcomen’s models, adding a separate water condenser that made it far more efficient. Watt later collaborated with Matthew Boulton to invent a steam engine with a rotary motion, a key innovation that would allow steam power to spread across British industries, including flour, paper, and cotton mills, iron works, distilleries, waterworks and canals.

Just as steam engines needed coal, steam power allowed miners to go deeper and extract more of this relatively cheap energy source. The demand for coal skyrocketed throughout the Industrial Revolution and beyond, as it would be needed to run not only the factories used to produce manufactured goods, but also the railroads and steamships used for transporting them.

Transportation During the Industrial Revolution

Britain’s road network, which had been relatively primitive prior to industrialization, soon saw substantial improvements, and more than 2,000 miles of canals were in use across Britain by 1815.

In the early 1800s, Richard Trevithick debuted a steam-powered locomotive, and in 1830 similar locomotives started transporting freight (and passengers) between the industrial hubs of Manchester and Liverpool. By that time, steam-powered boats and ships were already in wide use, carrying goods along Britain’s rivers and canals as well as across the Atlantic.

Communication and Banking in the Industrial Revolution

The latter part of the Industrial Revolution also saw key advances in communication methods, as people increasingly saw the need to communicate efficiently over long distances. In 1837, British inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the first commercial telegraphy system, even as Samuel Morse and other inventors worked on their own versions in the United States. Cooke and Wheatstone’s system would be used for railroad signalling, as the speed of the new trains had created a need for more sophisticated means of communication.

Banks and industrial financiers rose to new prominent during the period, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s; the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s.

In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith (1723-1790), who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published The Wealth of Nations. In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference.

Working Conditions

Though many people in Britain had begun moving to the cities from rural areas before the Industrial Revolution, this process accelerated dramatically with industrialization, as the rise of large factories turned smaller towns into major cities over the span of decades. This rapid urbanization brought significant challenges, as overcrowded cities suffered from pollution, inadequate sanitation and a lack of clean drinking water.

Meanwhile, even as industrialization increased economic output overall and improved the standard of living for the middle and upper classes, poor and working class people continued to struggle. The mechanization of labor created by technological innovation had made working in factories increasingly tedious (and sometimes dangerous), and many workers were forced to work long hours for pitifully low wages. Such dramatic changes fueled opposition to industrialization, including the “Luddites,” known for their violent resistance to changes in Britain’s textile industry.

In the decades to come, outrage over substandard working and living conditions would fuel the formation of labor unions, as well as the passage of new child labor laws and public health regulations in both Britain and the United States, all aimed at improving life for working class and poor citizens who had been negatively impacted by industrialization.

READ MORE: How the Industrial Revolution Gave Rise to Violent 'Luddites'

The Industrial Revolution in the United States

The beginning of industrialization in the United States is usually pegged to the opening of a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 by the recent English immigrant Samuel Slater. Slater had worked at one of the mills opened by Richard Arkwright (inventor of the water frame) mills, and despite laws prohibiting the emigration of textile workers, he brought Arkwright’s designs across the Atlantic. He later built several other cotton mills in New England, and became known as the “Father of the American Industrial Revolution.”

The United States followed its own path to industrialization, spurred by innovations “borrowed” from Britain as well as by homegrown inventors like Eli Whitney. Whitney’s 1793 invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the nation’s cotton industry (and strengthened the hold of slavery over the cotton-producing South).

READ MORE: How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South

By the end of the 19th century, with the so-called Second Industrial Revolution underway, the United States would also transition from a largely agrarian society to an increasingly urbanized one, with all the attendant problems. By the mid-19th century, industrialization was well-established throughout the western part of Europe and America’s northeastern region. By the early 20th century, the U.S. had become the world’s leading industrial nation.

Historians continue to debate many aspects of industrialization, including its exact timeline, why it began in Britain as opposed to other parts of the world and the idea that it was actually more of a gradual evolution than a revolution. The positives and negatives of the Industrial Revolution are complex. On one hand, unsafe working conditions were rife and pollution from coal and gas are legacies we still struggle with today. On the other, the move to cities and inventions that made clothing, communication and transportation more affordable and accessible to the masses changed the course of world history. Regardless of these questions, the Industrial Revolution had a transformative economic, social and cultural impact, and played an integral role in laying the foundations for modern society.

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Sources

Robert C. Allen, The Industrial Revolution: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007

Claire Hopley, “A History of the British Cotton Industry.” British Heritage Travel, July 29, 2006

William Rosen, The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention. New York: Random House, 2010

Gavin Weightman, The Industrial Revolutionaries: The Making of the Modern World, 1776-1914. New York: Grove Press, 2007

Matthew White, “Georgian Britain: The Industrial Revolution.” British Library, October 14, 2009


Industrial Revolution: Definitions, Causes and Inventions - HISTORY

  • People of ancient and medieval times:
    • They had to spend long, tedious hours of hand labor even on simple objects.
    • The energy, or power, they employed in work came almost wholly from their own and animals’ muscles. selfstudyhistory.com
    • This transition included
      • going from hand production methods to machines,
      • new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes,
      • improved efficiency of water power,
      • the increasing use of steam power,
      • the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal
      • the development of machine tools.
      • transport steam (steam-powered railways, boats and ships),
      • the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and
      • the increasing use of machinery in steam powered factories.

      Was ‘Industrial Revolution’ a Revolution or Evolution?

      • It should not be called Revolution:
        • Revolution is seen as ‘immediate’. Evolution is seen as ‘taking a more extensive period of time’.
        • Some historians have argued that the economic and social changes occurred gradually and the term revolution is a misnomer.
        • Many historians argue that the Industrial Revolution covers a period far too long to be called Revolution: period from 1740 to about 1850 in Britain and from 1815 to the end of 19th century in Europe.
        • Despite significant economic and social changes in this period, the popular notion that these developments were rapid and ‘revolutionary’ has been questioned by many, suggesting certain industrial developments in the eighteenth century were the result of a culmination of gradual changes.
        • The term “Revolution” is misleading for describing a complicated series of forces, processes and discoveries which worked very slowly but gradually and created a new economic organisation.
        • It is suggested that it is better to call it evolution or “The Transition of Industrialism”.
        • In the short span between 1740 to 1850, the face of England changed dramatically.
          • Roads, railways, rivers and canals sprung up across the land, country hamlets became populous towns, factories replaced farms and chimney stacks dwarfed church spires, as technological innovations drove rapid economic growth.
          • The structure of British society was changed forever, with mass migration from country to towns and cities.
          • Until John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 and James Hargreaves the spinning jenny 31 years later, the making of yarn and the weaving of cloth had been much the same for thousands of years.
          • By 1800 a host of new and faster processes were in use in both manufacture and transportation.
          • We can say that, Industrial Revolution was Revolutionary in that when it started it radically changed the lives of those immediately affected by it – especially, then, in England.
          • As time went by it became Evolutionary in that new methods of production and treatment of workers came to the fore. Along with that, newer and larger markets kept opening up over a lengthy period of time.

          Pre-requisites and precursor of Industrial Revolution

          • Industrial Revolution had taken place in England in the 18th and 19th century. But before these great changes in the techniques of production could come, certain important things had happened earlier. Without these earlier happenings Industrial Revolution would not have been possible. These pre-requisites for the promotion of the later day Industrial Revolution were as follows:
          • Desire for material advancement:
            • Without desire for the material advancement progress is not possible.
            • This desire had grown in Europe mainly under the influence of Renaissance.
            • The early part of the modern period is also known as the Age of Reason. In this age philosophers like Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke etc. formulated certain basic laws of mankind.
              • One of these laws was that man should lead a happy life.
              • The second was that man had certain natural rights of which rights of life, liberty and property were the most fundamental ones.
              • The third law was that in order to enjoy a good life man had to possess wealth which he could accumulate and use.
              • Europe had an advantage because, due to, the Geographical exploration and discoveries and the resultant Commercial Revolution, Europe could get raw material such as cotton, sugarcane, indigo etc. both from the orient and the new world.
              • The availability of markets for the distribution of the finished goods was also prerequisite for the Industrial Revolution.
              • Under the impact of the Geographical discoveries and the consequent Commercial Revolution, the European markets had grown internally and externally.
              • The growth of markets widened the chance to realise adequate profit and also a chance to produce more for the market.
              • The widening of the market was also an important condition for the progress in the industrial front.
              • Besides the raw materials and the markets the Industrial Revolution required labour force which offered itself for wages.
              • The labour force which was needed now was to be a mobile one and also skilled .
              • The growth of population in Europe greatly facilitated the labour supply.
              • Moreover, the advancements in the agricultural production released labour from rural areas.
              • Thus the labour supply for industrial work had gone up in Europe.
              • The mere availability of labour, raw materials and the growth in the size of markets were of no use if there were no proper transportation facilities.
              • The Hollanders came out with a new kind of ocean going vessel during this time.
              • The principle of steam lining was made use of in devising this new ship known as FLUTE.
              • By this the cost of ship building came down by one third.
              • In regard to internal commerce, England witnessed a veritable mania of canal and road making.
              • Another major aspect of economy that witnesses much progress before the Industrial Revolution could take place was in the field of agriculture.
              • No doubt that many of the agricultural achievements had taken place along with the changes in the industrial techniques.
              • But some of the agricultural changes had preceded Industrial Revolution.
              • Thus the growth in the agricultural productivity generated enough surplus to support the Industrial Revolution and also rising urban population.
              • Commerce and industry have always been closely related.
              • Beginning in about 1400, world commerce grew and changed so greatly that the term “commercial revolution” is used to describe the economic progress of the next three and a half centuries.
              • Many factors helped bring about this revolution in trade.
                • The Crusades opened up the riches of the East to Western Europe.
                • America was discovered, and European nations began to acquire rich colonies there and elsewhere.
                • New trade routes were opened.
                • The strong central governments which replaced the feudal system began to protect and help their merchants.
                • Trading firms, such as the British East India Company, were chartered by governments.
                • Larger ships were built, and flourishing cities grew up.
                • Large-scale commerce could not be carried on by barter.
                • Gold and silver from the New World helped meet this need.
                • Banks and credit systems developed.
                • By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large accumulation of capital.
                • Money had to be available before machinery and steam engines could come into wide use for they were costly to manufacture and install.
                • Organizing Production: From Cottage Industry to Factory System
                  • In medieval times, families produced most of the food, clothing, and other articles they used, as they had done for centuries.
                  • In the cities merchandise was made in shops much like those of the medieval craftsmen, and manufacturing was strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. The goods made in these shops were limited and costly.
                  • The merchants needed cheaper items, as well as larger quantities, for their growing trade.
                    • As early as the 15th century they already had begun to go outside the cities, beyond the reach of the hampering regulations, and to establish another system of producing goods.
                    • Cloth merchants, for instance, would buy raw wool from the sheep owners, have it spun into yarn by farmers’ wives, and take it to country weavers to be made into textiles.
                    • These country weavers could manufacture the cloth more cheaply than city craftsmen could, because they got part of their living from their farms.
                    • The merchants would then collect the cloth and give it out again to finishers and dyers.
                    • Thus merchants controlled cloth making from start to finish.
                    • It gave the merchant a large supply of manufactured articles at a low price.
                    • It also enabled him to order the particular kinds of items that he needed for his markets.
                    • It provided employment for every member of a craft worker’s family and gave jobs to skilled workers who had no capital to start businesses for themselves.
                    • They brought workers together under one roof and supplied them with spinning wheels and looms or with the implements of other trades (Factory System).
                    • These establishments were factories which was precursor to Industrial Revolution.

                    Why did the Industrial Revolution Start in England?

                    • By the end of the 19th century, the island of Great Britain controlled the largest empire in the history of the world (one quarter of the world’s land mass).
                      • How did this little island come to rule an empire?
                      • How did Great Britain acquire so much military and economic power in the world?
                      • The answer, of course, is that it had an enormous commercial and technological head start over the rest of the world because the Industrial Revolution started in England.
                      • What qualities – political, economic, cultural, geographical, or ecological – did Britain possess that predisposed it towards early industrialisation?
                      • Or what was missing in other countries so that their industrialisation was either delayed until the second half of the nineteenth century, or indeed had failed to occur by the century’s end at all?
                      • Agriculture occupied a prominent position in the English way of life.
                        • Not only was its importance rooted in the subsistence of the population, but agriculture was an indispensable source of raw materials for the textile industry.
                        • Wool and cotton production for the manufacture of cloth increased in each successive year, as did the yield of food crops.
                        • The Enclosure Movement was a push in the 18th to take land that had formerly been owned in common by all members of a village and change it to privately owned land, usually with walls, fences or hedges around it.
                        • The enclosure of common village fields into individual landholdings, or the division of unproductive land into private property concentrated the ownership of the land into the hands of a few, and made it possible to institute improved farming techniques on a wider scale.
                        • Later it was discovered that the cultivation of clover and other legumes would help to restore the fertility of the soil without leaving it fallow.
                        • This increased the size of herds for meat and allowed farmers to begin with larger herds than they had previously.
                        • The upshot of Britain’s success in the global economy was the expansion of rural manufacturing industries and rapid urbanisation.
                          • East Anglia was the centre of the woollen cloth industry, and its products were exported through London where a quarter of the jobs depended on the port.
                          • As a result, the population of London exploded from 50,000 in 1500 to 200,000 in 1600 and half a million in 1700.
                          • vigorous imperialism, which expanded British possessions abroad,
                          • the Royal Navy, which defeated competing naval and mercantile powers, and
                          • the Navigation Acts, which excluded foreigners from the colonial trades.
                          • Government policies in England toward property and commerce encouraged innovation and the spread of global trade.
                          • The government created patent laws that allowed inventors to benefit financially from the “intellectual property” of their inventions.
                          • The British government also encouraged global trade by expanding the Navy to protect trade and granting monopolies or other financial incentives to companies so they would explore the world to find resources.
                          • Financial institutions such as central banks, stock markets, and joint stock companies encouraged people to take risks with investments, trade, and new technologies.
                          • Businessmen were willing to take a chance on new things and they were also supported by the government.
                          • Enterprising people can invest, manage large enterprises and labour force.
                          • Agriculture surplus and surplus wealth was not in the possession of feudal lords who would spend it in conspicuous consumption but in hand of those who were interested in investing it for further productive exercises.
                          • It encouraged scholars and craftspeople to apply new scientific thinking to mechanical and technological challenges.
                          • In the centuries before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans gradually incorporated science and reason into their world view. These intellectual shifts made English culture, in particular, highly receptive to new mechanical and financial ideas.
                          • They made inventions keeping in view the needs of the time.
                          • This was in complete contrast to the continental scientists who concentrated on research in chemicals etc. which were not of immediate applies relevance. France made luxurious items which had limited demand.
                          • Government spent a considerable amount on the improvement of roads, canals etc.
                          • New method of road making:
                            • creating a firm foundation by dumping large stones in road bed and then covering with smaller stones and then with gravel and clay.
                            • Such road can withstand heavy loads and much traffic.
                            • Good roads, canals, and navigable rivers, by diminishing the expense of carriage, put the remote parts of the country more nearly upon a level with those in the neighbourhood of the town. They are upon that account the greatest of all improvements”.
                            • Coal and Iron deposits were plentiful in Great Britain and proved essential to the development of all new machines made of iron or steel and powered by coal—such as the steam-powered machinery in textile factories, and the locomotive.
                            • The need for coal for smelting iron ores, transportation etc. necessitated improvement in the techniques of coal mining. Metal cages and tubes & wire ropes were used to lift coal.
                            • Engines were invented to pump out the water from the mines.
                            • As London grew after 1500, the price of wood fuels rose and by the end of the sixteenth century, charcoal and firewood were twice the price of coal per unit of energy.
                              • With that premium, consumers began to substitute coal for wood.
                              • On the coal fields, Britain had the cheapest energy in the world.
                              • World trade gradually increased in the centuries before the Industrial Revolution and provided European countries access to raw materials and a market for goods.
                              • It also increased wealth that could then be loaned by banks to finance more industrial expansion in an upward spiral of economic growth.
                              • By 1500, Europe had a technological supremacy over the rest of the world in shipbuilding, navigation, and metallurgy (metal working).
                              • In successive years, European countries would use these advantages to dominate world trade with Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Britain led other European countries.
                              • The greater liberalization of trade from a large merchant base allowed Britain to produce and utilize emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than European countries with stronger monarchies.
                              • Success in international trade created Britain’s high wage, cheap energy economy, and it was the spring board for the Industrial Revolution.
                                • High wages and cheap energy created a demand for technology that substituted capital and energy for labour. These incentives operated in many industries.
                                • The success of R&D programs in “eighteenth century Britain” depended on the high wage economy.
                                • In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the growth of a manufacturing, commercial economy increased the demand for literacy, numeracy and trade skills.
                                  • These were acquired through privately purchased education and apprenticeships.
                                  • The high wage economy not only created a demand for these skills, but also gave parents the income to purchase them.
                                  • As a result, the British population was highly skilled, and those skills were necessary for the high tech revolution to unfold.
                                  • These inventions substituted capital and energy for labour.
                                  • The steam engine increased the use of capital and coal to raise output per worker.
                                  • The cotton mill used machines to raise labour productivity in spinning and weaving.
                                  • New technologies of iron making substituted cheap coal for expensive charcoal and mechanised production to increase output per worker.
                                  • England accumulated capital from trade and agricultural surplus which enabled her to make large outlays on machinery and building.
                                  • England also possessed a large loanable capital obtained by Bank of England from rich trade with other countries and National Debt at a nominal rate of interest.
                                  • It served as a transition from a rural to an industrial economy.
                                  • Like the later industrial factories, the cottage industry relied on wage labor, cloth production, tools and rudimentary machines, and a market to buy and sell raw materials (cotton) and finished products (clothes).
                                  • The damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry.
                                  • The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688 (after Glorious Revolution), and British society’s greater receptiveness to change (when compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution.
                                  • In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialization, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.
                                  • England had relatively secure property rights
                                  • Unlike Germany or Italy, England was not politically fragmented.
                                  • England did not look down upon NEW RICH. Rising middle class were absorbed in higher social classes. Thus special recognition was given to material advancement.
                                  • Also England was one of the earliest in abolishing slavery which had positive social and economic impact.
                                  • The island geography (an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe) provided favourable protection from predation on a national scale.
                                  • Since it was away from European continent, it did not indulge in useless war of the European continent which gave it relative political and economic stability.
                                  • Any conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe.
                                  • Blockade by Napoleon against British trade and any British import pushed Britain for further innovation to be self-reliance.
                                  • Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy).
                                  • It is said that: “Napoleon career enabled Industrial Revolution to go forward in England and Industrial Revolution enabled England to overthrow Napoleon.”
                                  • In England, church land was confiscated and 1/4th of national resources were brought into productive use.
                                  • British advance was also due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work.
                                  • The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic and the particular status of dissenting Protestant sects.
                                  • Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the constitutional monarchy in Britain and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures.
                                  • Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England’s Universities (Oxford and Cambridge). When the membership in the official Anglican church became mandatory, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education.
                                  • The Unitarians (Unitarianism is the Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom of belief), in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences—areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.
                                  • British historian Eric Hobsbawm characterized English industrial history: “Whoever says Industrial Revolution says cotton.”
                                  • Rapid industrialization transformed the lives of English men and women after 1750, and changes in cotton textiles were at the heart of this process and Industrial Revolution started chiefly from the textile industry.
                                  • Textile Industry had following advantages
                                    • Already semi-mechanised:
                                      • Textile techniques were already at such point of development that only a few minor alterations had to be effected to render both spinning and weaving semi-mechanised and semi-automatic.
                                      • It was relatively free to use techniques to reduce the cost of production, for the cotton textile trade was not subject to guild regulation. The monopolistic guilds never existed in cotton because it was a new industry.
                                      • There was more focus on textile manufacturing because the manufacture and export of various cloths were vital to the English economy in the 17th and early 18th centuries.
                                      • Before the Industrial Revolution, textiles were produced under the putting-out system, in which merchant clothiers had their work done in the homes of artisans or farming families.
                                      • Production was limited by reliance on the spinning wheel and the hand loom increases in output required more hand workers at each stage.
                                      • Invention dramatically changed the nature of textile work.
                                      • In Weaving Field:
                                        • The flying shuttle, patented by John Kay in 1733, increased the output of each weaver and led to increased demand for yarn.
                                        • This prompted effort by others to mechanize the spinning of yarn.
                                        • The first advance came in 1767, when James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, allowing one spinner to produce several yarns at a time.
                                        • Textile industry was first to exploit the potential of power driven machinery.
                                        • In 1769, Richard Arkwright patented the water frame, a spinning machine that produced a coarse, twisted yarn and could be powered by water.
                                        • Coupled with the carding machine, the Arkwright spinning frame ushered in the modern factory. (It could not work in small places and so it was parent of the factory system)
                                        • The first textile mills, needing waterpower to drive their machinery, were built on fast-moving streams in rural England.
                                        • After the 1780s, with the application of steam power, mills also grew up in urban centers.
                                        • It spurred cultivation of cotton in the South to meet expanding English demand for the fiber.
                                        • The growth and profits of English textiles also caught the imagination of American merchants, the more far sighted of whom sought to manufacture cloth and not simply market English imports.
                                        • Hence, cotton gave impetus to the Industrialisation in the other parts of the world also.

                                        Q. What do you mean by Mercantilism? Discuss its main features. Also give causes of rise of Mercantilism.


                                        #1 Political and Economic competition in Europe

                                        Though the European states had frequently fought amongst each other for many centuries, by the mid-18th century many of them were rising colonial powers. What was at stake now was competition for being a global world superpower. In the beginning of the 18th century, Britain had just a quarter and two thirds the population of France and Spain respectively. It was thus under constant pressure fighting against these perennial and larger enemies. The British engaged in many major wars during this period like Austrian war of succession (1740-48), Seven Years War (1756-63), American Revolutionary War (1775-83) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15) to name a few. The need to keep up with the enemy put tremendous pressure on the country to produce more. This desperate need incentivized the invention of labour-saving devices, which played a key role in the revolution.


                                        #2 Steam Engine

                                        The steam engine is termed as the defining innovation of the first industrial revolution in Britain. It was the energy behind advanced inventions in textiles (power loom, spinning mule) and transport (steam powered locomotives and ships) and was one of the primary causes for the transition from human power to machine power. In 1712, British ironmonger Thomas Newcomen combined the ideas of British engineer Thomas Savery and French physicist Denis Papin to make a steam powered engine for lifting water from tin mines. The engine produced a pumping action but no rotating motion and was expensive to run. In the 1760s, James Watt, a Scottish instrument maker, worked along with some professors from the University of Glasgow to improve on Newcomen’s engine. He vastly improved the energy and cost effectiveness of the machine adapting his engine to eventually produce rotary movement and this widened its scope beyond the mining industry.


                                        EMERGENCE OF SOCIOLOGY AS A DISCIPLINE

                                        The Industrial Revolution is considered as one of the factors that led to the development of the domain of sociology. History says that Auguste Comte, father of sociology developed an interest in observing and studying the society during the time of the industrial revolution. As mentioned earlier, the industrial revolution had led to tremendous observable changes in the society. As an impact of the industrial revolution, the life of people changed, in the social front and their workplaces. As a result of urbanization and due to the increase in opportunities in the urban areas, people started a mass migration to cities. Their social conditions got twisted, as a result. Although he thought that the conditions that existed could be looked at from the perspective of different social sciences like political science and economics, he thought that only the birth of a new science could capture all of the essence of the situation. Thus, the science of ‘Sociology’, a word that stands for the Latin word ‘Socius’ (meaning “being with others”) took birth. He broke the subject into two parts, social statics, and social dynamics. Comte and his immediate followers started studying various aspects of the society through the eyes of this newly born subject. The social changes that resulted from the Industrial revolution started to be closely analyzed and questioned. Early sociologists were interested in studying the struggle the society was going through, in terms of gender disparities, religions, culture and class structure of the society.

                                        These are the various effects the Industrial Revolution had on the world, in brief. Needless to say, the revolution was a source of huge changes that got implemented in society, both positive and negative.


                                        Causes and Effects of the Industrial Revolution

                                        KEY IDEA: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems

                                        KEY IDEA: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Agricultural innovations and technologies enabled people to alter their environment, allowing them to increase and support farming on a large scale.

                                        CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the agricultural revolution in Great Britain.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Factors including new economic theories and practices, new sources of energy, and technological innovations influenced the development of new communication and transportation systems and new methods of production. These developments had numerous effects.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will analyze the factors and conditions needed to industrialize and to expand industrial production, as well as shifts in economic practices.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the economic theory presented in The Wealth of Nations.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine changes and innovations in energy, technology, communication, and transportation that enabled industrialization.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Shifts in population from rural to urban areas led to social changes in class structure, family structure, and the daily lives of people.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will investigate the social, political, and economic impacts of industrialization in Victorian England and Meiji Japan and compare and contrast them.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Social and political reform, as well as new ideologies, developed in response to industrial growth.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will investigate suffrage, education, and labor reforms, as well as ideologies such as Marxism, that were intended to transform society.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the Irish potato famine within the context of the British agricultural revolution and Industrial Revolution.

                                        Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems.

                                        Unit Essential Question:

                                        These documents include a unit plan and may also include recommended primary sources the unit plan is designed to be copied and modified by teachers for their own use.

                                        Guide and planning document for Unit 10.3

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                                        This course map provides the scope and sequence and structure of units in the New Visions Global II History Curriculum.

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                                        Curriculum Components

                                        This calendar provides suggested pacing for the New Visions Global II Curriculum and is mapped to the New York City Department of Education's academic calendar.

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                                        Review sheets for ALL of the topics in the Global II curriculum and concept mapping activities to organize that information. Students contextualize the event, discuss its significance and think about related enduring issues.

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                                        Unit Outline

                                        End of Unit Assessments See 8 items Hide 8 items

                                        Our units are developed through a backwards design process in which we start with the summative assessments and then create resources and formative assessments based on the content and skills students will need to be successful (See Understanding by Designby Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe). We encourage teachers to start their planning by looking first at the end of unit assessments and then at specific resources.

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                                        KEY IDEA: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems

                                        KEY IDEA: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Agricultural innovations and technologies enabled people to alter their environment, allowing them to increase and support farming on a large scale.

                                        CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the agricultural revolution in Great Britain.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Factors including new economic theories and practices, new sources of energy, and technological innovations influenced the development of new communication and transportation systems and new methods of production. These developments had numerous effects.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will analyze the factors and conditions needed to industrialize and to expand industrial production, as well as shifts in economic practices.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the economic theory presented in The Wealth of Nations.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine changes and innovations in energy, technology, communication, and transportation that enabled industrialization.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Shifts in population from rural to urban areas led to social changes in class structure, family structure, and the daily lives of people.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will investigate the social, political, and economic impacts of industrialization in Victorian England and Meiji Japan and compare and contrast them.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Social and political reform, as well as new ideologies, developed in response to industrial growth.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will investigate suffrage, education, and labor reforms, as well as ideologies such as Marxism, that were intended to transform society.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the Irish potato famine within the context of the British agricultural revolution and Industrial Revolution.

                                        Please comment below with questions, feedback, suggestions, or descriptions of your experience using this resource with students.

                                        If you found an error in the resource, please let us know so we can correct it by filling out this form.

                                        We have restricted access to assessments to EDUCATORS ONLY.

                                        If you click on the "Open in Google Docs" button below and can view the document, then you already have access.

                                        If you do not have access to the assessments, please fill out the form linked here.

                                        You will need to provide your official school email address AND a Google email address. In some cases, these will be the same email account. You will only need to fill the form out once to gain access to all of the assessments and teacher materials in the curriculum.

                                        After you fill out the form, you will receive notification that you have been added to a Google Group called "New Visions Social Studies Assessments Access." Once you receive that notification, you can access all of the assessments through the New Visions Social Studies Curriculum website, but you must be logged into the Google account you provided in the form to view the assessments.

                                        We will try to respond to all access requests within 72 hours. We are sorry if this delay causes any inconvenience.

                                        KEY IDEA: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems

                                        KEY IDEA: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Innovations in agriculture, production, and transportation led to the Industrial Revolution, which originated in Western Europe and spread over time to Japan and other regions. This led to major population shifts and transformed economic and social systems.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Agricultural innovations and technologies enabled people to alter their environment, allowing them to increase and support farming on a large scale.

                                        CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the agricultural revolution in Great Britain.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Factors including new economic theories and practices, new sources of energy, and technological innovations influenced the development of new communication and transportation systems and new methods of production. These developments had numerous effects.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will analyze the factors and conditions needed to industrialize and to expand industrial production, as well as shifts in economic practices.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the economic theory presented in The Wealth of Nations.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine changes and innovations in energy, technology, communication, and transportation that enabled industrialization.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Shifts in population from rural to urban areas led to social changes in class structure, family structure, and the daily lives of people.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will investigate the social, political, and economic impacts of industrialization in Victorian England and Meiji Japan and compare and contrast them.

                                        CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING: Social and political reform, as well as new ideologies, developed in response to industrial growth.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will investigate suffrage, education, and labor reforms, as well as ideologies such as Marxism, that were intended to transform society.

                                        ​CONTENT SPECIFICATION: Students will examine the Irish potato famine within the context of the British agricultural revolution and Industrial Revolution.

                                        Please comment below with questions, feedback, suggestions, or descriptions of your experience using this resource with students.

                                        If you found an error in the resource, please let us know so we can correct it by filling out this form.

                                        Please comment below with questions, feedback, suggestions, or descriptions of your experience using this resource with students.

                                        If you found an error in the resource, please let us know so we can correct it by filling out this form.

                                        End of Unit Exam for 10.3 aligned to the NYS Global History and Geography Transition Exam

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                                        You will need to provide your official school email address AND a Google email address. In some cases, these will be the same email account. You will only need to fill the form out once to gain access to all of the assessments and teacher materials in the curriculum.

                                        After you fill out the form, you will receive notification that you have been added to a Google Group called "New Visions Social Studies Assessments Access." Once you receive that notification, you can access all of the assessments through the New Visions Social Studies Curriculum website, but you must be logged into the Google account you provided in the form to view the assessments.

                                        We will try to respond to all access requests within 72 hours. We are sorry if this delay causes any inconvenience.

                                        Please comment below with questions, feedback, suggestions, or descriptions of your experience using this resource with students.

                                        If you found an error in the resource, please let us know so we can correct it by filling out this form.

                                        Causes and Effects of the Industrial Revolution

                                        Teacher materials for the End of Unit Exam for 10.3 aligned to the NYS Global History and Geography Transition Exam

                                        Assessment Security and Access

                                        We have restricted access to assessments to EDUCATORS ONLY.

                                        If you click on the "Open in Google Docs" button below and can view the document, then you already have access.

                                        If you do not have access to the assessments, please fill out the form linked here.

                                        You will need to provide your official school email address AND a Google email address. In some cases, these will be the same email account. You will only need to fill the form out once to gain access to all of the assessments and teacher materials in the curriculum.

                                        After you fill out the form, you will receive notification that you have been added to a Google Group called "New Visions Social Studies Assessments Access." Once you receive that notification, you can access all of the assessments through the New Visions Social Studies Curriculum website, but you must be logged into the Google account you provided in the form to view the assessments.

                                        We will try to respond to all access requests within 72 hours. We are sorry if this delay causes any inconvenience.


                                        Industrial Revolution: Causes, Consequence and Political Ideas

                                        The analysis we have just concluded reveals that the entire society of European continent was absolutely ripe for change and the governments of several European states took steps. They introduced reforms to meet the challenge of new outlook and physical situation.

                                        The governments of European states felt that any negligence would invite disorder and chaos. Compared with the past, mind of men was quite scientific. Harman says – “Changing ideas was not the same as changing society. It would require another cycle of revolutions and civil wars to bring that about”. In the second half of the eighteenth century in Britain and several other countries of Western Europe there was a revolution in the industrial world.

                                        Several factors jointly contributed to the emergence of the revolution in the industrial and commercial worlds and the intellectual factors being the prominent of them.

                                        It has been asserted that evolution in thought and outlook was the chief factor that contributed to the rise of revolution in the industrial field. Before the emergence of revolution in industrial fields people earned their livelihood from agriculture and other fields. But agriculture was incapable to provide livelihood to everyone.

                                        People began to devise new scope for livelihood. Alternative occupations were to be found out and this feeling inspired them to go out in search of alternative ways. In the medieval period the life of the people centred on religion which taught them to be other-worldly minded.

                                        Under the impact of the new atmosphere people became materialist minded. They before long realized that agriculture could not satisfy their material demands and fulfill economic necessities. This caused Indus­trial Revolution.

                                        In the second half of the eighteenth century a number of discoveries took place with rapid succession and all these brought about radical changes in the industrial and production fields which ultimately led to the unprecedented rise in production of commodities. Jointly it is called revolution in the industrial sector.

                                        The discoveries of Kay in 1733, Hargreaves in 1768, Arkwright in 1769 and Crompton in 1779 revolutionized in various ways the industrial picture in general and weaving industry in particular. There was a remarkable impact of scientific discoveries on transport and communication and agriculture.

                                        The farmers began to apply the discoveries in agriculture and this led to the rise to the production of agricultural commodities. The discovery of steam engine brought about change in the produc­tion of iron. In a word, the series of scientific discoveries change the industrial scene of several countries of Europe.

                                        Many people were encouraged to invest in industries because they felt it highly profitable. Particularly the landlords sold their agricultural land and invested in industries. This resulted in the huge production of industrial goods that was practically unimaginable before Industrial Revolution. The setting up of new indus­tries, at the initial stage, required labourers.

                                        The persons engaged in the production of agricultural commodities left villages and thronged in the cities and centres at which industries were set up. At the preliminary level there was no problem of getting jobs in industries because there was great demand of labour.

                                        We all call it Industrial Revolution because the successive discoveries of instruments practically changed the industrial picture. This change is called the Industrial Revolution.

                                        If we look at the history and other aspects of Industrial Revolution we will find that it first originated in Britain. The pertinent question that peeps in our mind is that why did it first originate in Britain?

                                        (1) In sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it has been observed, there were tension and instability in the social and political life of Britain and this situation prevented the rise and growth of economy in general and industry in particular. Thomas Hobbes writes in his Leviathan (1651)

                                        “Whatso­ever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where everyman is enemy of every man…wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them? In such a condition, there is no place of industry, because the first thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth, no navigation, nor use of commodities that may be imported by sea, no commodious building, no instruments of moving”. This type of instability was to some extent absent in eighteenth century and this helped considerably the growth of industry.

                                        (2) Some people point out that the British people were to some extent invention-minded. They want to devise techniques for their work.

                                        (3) Before the onset of Industrial Revolution feudalism collapsed in Britain. The attachment of the landlords to landed property practically came to an end and they went out in search of new ventures. This was one of the causes of Industrial Revolution.

                                        (4) New inventions and discoveries were applied in agriculture and this resulted in a revolution in agriculture. Scholars are of opinion that revolution in agriculture, in an indirect way, helped the Industrial Revolution. Raw materials were need for the furtherance of industrial progress. Thus both industry and agriculture got favourable opportunity for progress.

                                        (5) The produc­tion of industrial goods needed new markets and Britain got that opportunity because of its colonies that spread in Africa and Asia.

                                        Consequence of Industrial Revolution:

                                        Before Industrial Revolution (hereafter only I. R.) the labour was “unproductive” because he had no instrument to help him in work. But I. R. made a labourer productive because he now got the help of new instruments in his activities.

                                        Adam Smith and many other economists have said that new machineries have transformed the unproductive labourer into productive. Harman observes “Productive labour helped create durable products which could be sold either to be consumed by those engaged in other labour or as capital to be used in producing more goods. In either case its output helped to create more output, making the “wealth of the nation” expand.”

                                        This is a very important consequence of I. R. and it has far-reaching ramifications in the whole economy. Adam Smith has rightly said that it has helped the expansion of the wealth of nation. In fact, the wealth of the nations could not get any opportunity to expand without I. R.

                                        Adam Smith has thoroughly studied the various aspects of I. R. and has arrived at the conclusion that it is this revolution that produced unimaginable amount of commodities. Not only this, it later on created opportunities of distribution and marketing. The producers made arrangements for the sale of all the industrial goods.

                                        With the meteoric rise of production, the manufacturers went out in search of new markets and in this task they sought the help of their government. This finally stood at colonialism or colonisation as is popularly called. Colonialism and I. R. in fact, went hand in hand.

                                        The I. R. created, within very short time, fabulous amount of wealth and the maximum part of this wealth was gobbled by the capitalists or manufacturers because they always played the leading part in the process of industrialisation. But penetration into the entire process will reveal that the labourers—the real actors of the whole productive process—were practically deprived of the fruits of the I. R. That is, they were not getting their due share of the profit.

                                        Polanyi has rightly observed the labouring people had been crowded together in new places of desolation, the country folk had been dehumanised into slum-dwellers, the family was on the road to perdition and the large parts of the country were rapidly disappearing under the slack and scrap heaps vomited forth from the satanic mills. This was the inevitable consequence of I. R. Man was converted into lifeless machine which finally led to the nefarious dehumanisation of labour. I. R. may rightly be termed as the father of both poverty and opulence.

                                        I. R. practically created a moribund situation for the century-old cottage and small-scale industries that developed in the country-side and created employment opportunities for millions of people.

                                        In comparison with quality and price, products of cottage and village industries were far different than machine goods. The result was that while the demand for machine goods was high the same for the cottage industry goods lagged far behind. In many cases the age-old cottage industries were faced with destruction. This was inevitable.

                                        The consequences of I. R. were not confined within the geographical boundaries of the countries of its origin. The manufacturers set up markets in foreign countries for the sale of their goods and this finally crippled the small industries of the colonies. The industrial magnates of Britain and other imperialist countries in all possible ways discouraged the industrialization in colonies and this is one of the reasons of the industrially backwardness of the colonies.

                                        Political Ideas of Industrial Revolution:

                                        The division of society into classes is the inevitable consequence of Industrial Revolution. The I. R. radically transformed the social, economic and political situation of all countries that came under its influence.

                                        “There was a transformation of the working and living conditions of millions of people. They began to crowd into town and cities on a scale unknown in history”.

                                        People in rural areas left their ancestral homes and gathered around the factory and mills in search of jobs.

                                        Harman, citing few statistics, observes that in 1750 there had been only two cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants—London and Edinburgh. By 1851, just after a century, there were 29 cities and the majority of people lived in towns.

                                        There was a transformation of the whole society. Needless to say that most of the inhabitants of the towns were labourers. They lived in slums and led a life full of poverty, diseases and, above all, deprivation.

                                        These people worked hard from sunrise to sun-set for meagre wages which was insufficient for livelihood. “The new labour force was the source of massive wealth. But it was wealth for others”. The fruits of I. R. (that is wealth and profit) went to the capitalists or the owners of industries.

                                        Whereas, the labourers who were the source of wealth were deprived of the benefit of I. R. To sum up, the I. R. divided the entire population into two broad classes or groups—propertied class and non-propertied class. Or, to put it in other words, capitalist class and working class.

                                        With the progress of industrialization the gap between these two classes began to widen. The propertied class was not prepared to allow benefits to the working class and the main reason behind this was that any attempt to alleviate poverty will undermine the discipline. If poor people get more financial benefits and concessions they would become idle, lazy and worthless.

                                        The actual reason is any extra benefits will cut the volume of profits and the capitalists were not prepared to accept it. The net result was the division of society into two classes. Now this division of society into two classes led to class conflict because the interests of the opposing classes were opposite.

                                        The purpose of the capitalists was to maximize the volume of profit and the objective of the workers was to earn enough wage so that they can lead a comfortable life. We conclude the-conflict between the two major classes, the product of I. R., is the chief characteristic of an industrialized society. Class struggle later on came from this class conflict.

                                        The class conflict or the bitter relation between the two major classes created another situation. In the thirties and forties of the nineteenth century the labour trouble in the industrialized countries assumed new dimensions and this forced the capitalists to think of reorganization of public administration.

                                        They wanted to control state administration so that they could win over the working class. They believed that a definite control over the administration would enable them to check the labour trouble.

                                        Police, army and bureaucracy were the chief weapons by which the labour trouble could be checked and since all these were under the direct control of state administration the capitalists were determined to control administration in their favour.

                                        After the I. R. the capitalists constituted the dominating section of the society. Economically they were dominant. Finally, academically and politically, they finally became dominant. A un-holly alliance was formed between the capitalist class and the government. Government wanted more money for running the administration which could be provided by the capitalists.

                                        The capitalists were prepared to part with a portion of profit and the government was prepared to help them to control the working class. Gradually the control of the state machinery went to the hands of capitalists. The bureaucracy, army and police practically were converted into puppets. There was a state in an industrialized nation whose chief objective was to safeguard the economic and other interest of the dominating section of society.

                                        The I. R. completely changed the character of state administration. In the feudal age the state was controlled by the feudal lords and in the industrial period the state came to be dominated by capitalists. Ultimately the state was converted into a machine of exploitation. The machine was used by the capitalists to protect their financial interests.

                                        It is generally observed that the character of state assumed a new character and we call it the class character of state. Before I. R. there existed the class character of state but that was not so much prominent. This particular nature of state brought about numerous ramifications about politics.

                                        The state came to be called a machinery, its abolition was strongly advocated by Marx and his followers, and establishment of socialism and finally of communism. All these concepts are political-economic and, to some extent, sociological. Whatever it may be, they are definite by products of I. R.

                                        Utopian socialism and Marxism are the products of I. R. The three Utopian socialists, Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier and Robert Owen, first drew our attention to the miserable conditions of the working class and for the first time they suggested a way out. Of course Marx and Engels did not agree with their suggestion.

                                        Later on Marx and Engels went into the depth of capitalist society and scanned it thoroughly. The I. R. created miserable and intolerable conditions which were inextricably associated with the contradictions of capitalism. They drew the conclusion that the contradictions were the inevitable products of I. R.

                                        Laissez faire may be regarded as an important product of Industrial Revolution. The father of this doctrine was Adam Smith (1723-1790). He elaborated this doctrine in his Wealth of Nations (1776).

                                        The English equivalent of the term is a policy of non­-interference, especially abstention by governments from interfering in the workings of the free market. Before Adam Smith, the physiocrats strongly advocated the idea of non-interference in the economic affairs and in the seventies of the eighteenth century.

                                        Smith drew the attention of the larger section of the community by arguing that economic progress was dependent upon the establishment of the independence of the industrial capitalist.

                                        In his opinion any form of governmental interference in the economic activities of private persons or individual capitalists will thwart the progress of commerce and development of economy.

                                        This is popularly known as laissez faire. This is also called “economic liberation” (the term is frequently used by Eric Roll). This is also called the political philosophy of Adam Smith.

                                        The main emphasis of Adam Smith is that it is always the natural order that human beings prefer to work or to pursue their own policies or activities without being restrained.

                                        According to Smith it is “the obvious and simple system of natural liberty.” He also said that if a person is permitted to follow his own policies and activities that will finally result in grand success. But government’s restrictions will result in cata­strophic consequences.

                                        Summarizing Smith’s observation Eric Roll makes the following comment –

                                        “The consequences of the belief in the natural order are simple. Government can rarely be more effective when it is negative. Its intervention in human affairs is generally harmful. Let it leave each member of the community to seek to maximize his own advantage and, compelled by natural law, he will contribute to the maximization of the common good”.

                                        The concept of liberalism was first enunciated by John Locke and subsequently it was elaborated by many.

                                        Adam Smith saw that being pressurized by various sectors the government was imposing restrictions upon the freedom of industrialists and this was hampering the overall economic progress, His Wealth of Nations was published in 1776 and by that time the governmental interference was prominent.

                                        Smith apprehended that if it were allowed to continue the concept of free market will face dire consequences. Apprehending this he enthusiastically built up the doctrine of laissez faire.

                                        In clear terms he declared that it is not the business of government to restrict the economic activities of private entrepreneur’s in the pursuance of their economic policies and activities.

                                        Adam Smith argued that if freedom of activities is restricted (in the case of individuals) that will inevitably curtail their freedom and dampen their enthusiasm. Applying this general concept to economic liberalism Smith concluded that the I. R. has opened the door of industrialization and progress and this can be achieved through the laissez fane.

                                        The government has no business of interfering in the policies of activities of private persons Our point is the I. R. at least for a short period, invited the governmental interference in the economic fields and Adam Smith’s laissez faire doctrine put a very powerful check upon that. Some scholars are of opinion that the I. R. rejuvenated the political doctrine of liberalism and practically it goes in the name of Adam Smith.


                                        More important inventions developed during the Industrial Revolution

                                        1- Steam Machine

                                        The first steam engine prototypes date back to the late 17th century. At that time there existed devices that worked under the principle of the steam engine, being the most successful secularized by the English inventor Thomas Newcomen. However, this machine was not very efficient because the air cooled very fast.

                                        In 1774, the Scot James Watt improved this prototype and devised a mechanism through which steam was generated from the combustion of wood or charcoal, but without wasting heat.

                                        The steam engine allowed the emergence of the locomotive and the steamer, and was used both in the transportation industry and in production.

                                        2- Spinning machine

                                        Through the spinning machine it was possible to produce quickly, efficiently and on a large scale the threads, which would be the basis for the creation of textiles.

                                        Samuel Crompton takes previous initiatives by James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright and, in 1779, creates a prototype called"mule-Jenny"or"Jenny the Spinner".

                                        Through it it was possible to spin more than a thousand spindles at the same time, being able to manipulate as much fine and thick thread.

                                        The spinning machine simplified the work done by each worker. So much so that at the time there was some resistance to the invention because spinners feared losing their jobs.

                                        3- Bifocal lenses

                                        Benjamin Franklin Created the bifocals in 1784. The anxiety arose from his own need: Franklin suffered from presbyopia and, because he liked reading, every time he took a book he had to remove his glasses to see from a distance and put on his glasses to see close up.

                                        In order to solve the problem, Franklin cut both crystals and placed them in the same frame, the lens to see from far above and the other down, based on his own observation that people usually look something close down, and something Far up.

                                        4- Cotton gin

                                        At the end of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth century, cotton was the product of greater cultivation in the United States. The process of cotton harvesting was very tedious, because a worker could take hours separating the cotton wool from the seeds.

                                        In 1792, Eli Whitney invented cotton gin, a tool through which the cotton was quickly separated from the seeds. This led to increased production and the United States became a major exporter of cotton.

                                        5- Electric battery

                                        In 1800 the voltaic pile is created, thanks to the Italian inventor Alessandro Volta . This battery is considered the antecedent of the current batteries.

                                        The voltáica pile is a group of disks of silver, zinc and cardboard wet with water and salt, placed alternately. By connecting one end to the other through a cable, electric current is generated.

                                        6- Mechanical loom

                                        The Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard created the mechanical loom in 1801, taking as references ancient advances made in the area during the eighteenth century, led by Basile Bouchon, Jean Falcon and Jacques Vaucanson.

                                        The most outstanding feature of this loom is that it had templates of various designs, allowing less experienced people to generate complex prints. Patterns were stamped on fabrics quickly and efficiently.

                                        7- Telegraph

                                        The telegraph made possible the immediate communication between people separated by long distances. The creation of the telegraph meant an absolute change of the conception of the communication of the time.

                                        In 1837 the first telegraph was created. The inventor was the painter Samuel Finley Beese Morse, who became obsessed with the idea of ​​creating a device that would allow immediate communications, after learning of the death of his wife a week late.

                                        Morse is also credited with the creation of an alphabet, through which it was possible to transmit information through the telegraph (the Morse code).

                                        8- Telephone

                                        The inventor of the phone is not Alexander Graham Bell, as is commonly thought. The creator of the phone was the Italian Antonio Meucci, in 1870, who called that first prototype"teletrófono". Graham Bell was the first to patent it, but he was not the inventor.

                                        Through the telephone, communications between relatively nearby cities could be established, oral messages could be transmitted and the communicative process made faster and more efficient than with the telegraph.

                                        Thanks to the telephone, for the first time it was possible to communicate through the voice with physically distant people. This invention involved an unprecedented worldwide connection.

                                        9- Incandescent light

                                        Since the end of the eighteenth century it was a motivation for different scholars to find sources of light more powerful and sustained than that of candles or gas lamps.

                                        In 1879, the American Thomas Edison underwent a new procedure based on prototypes of bulbs created previously.

                                        It involved the use of a carbon filament that received electricity through platinum wires, and was insulated by means of a glass bulb.

                                        This invention was mass produced, which completely changed the social dynamics of the time.

                                        10- Airplane

                                        The Americans Wilbur and Orville Wright created a first prototype biplane and made a successful first flight, in 1903.

                                        In 1905, the Wright brothers finally created a structure that allowed a controlled and stable flight of high duration.

                                        It is said that the history of the creation of the airplane comes from 1800, thanks to studies of the aerodynamics of Sir George Cayley and initiatives designed by Jean Marie Le Bris, John J. Montgomery and Clément Ader.

                                        The newly created airplanes served a very important purpose: World War I . Thanks to this participation, the interest in the aircraft increased and its relevance in different areas.


                                        Industrialization and the Environment

                                        During the Industrial Revolution, environmental pollution increased with the use of new sources of fuel, the development of large factories, and the rise of unsanitary urban centers.

                                        Learning Objectives

                                        Describe the toll that industrialization took on public health and the environment

                                        Key Takeaways

                                        Key Points

                                        • Anthracite coal, discovered at the turn of the nineteenth century, became an important source of fuel in the United States during the Industrial Revolution, with lasting consequences for the environment.
                                        • Sanitation was a major public health concern in cities such as New York and Philadelphia, which lacked sewage systems and clean drinking water. Untreated sewage was not properly disposed of and thus frequently contaminated the local water supply.
                                        • Regulations to ensure cleaner air and cleaner water were not put in place until the second half of the nineteenth century.
                                        • Though environmentalism did not enter American discourse prior to the twentieth century, the transcendentalist movement of the 1830s and 1840s presented a critique of industrialization that elevated the natural world.
                                        • Transcendentalists, including Henry David Thoreau, fostered a romantic image of the natural world as a response to industrialization and urbanization.

                                        Key Terms

                                        • cholera: Any of several acute infectious diseases of humans and domestic animals, caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium through ingestion of contaminated water or food, usually marked by severe gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and dehydration.
                                        • transcendentalism: A movement of writers and philosophers in New England in the nineteenth century who were loosely bound together by an adherence to an idealistic system of thought based on the belief in the essential supremacy of insight over logic and experience for the revelation of the deepest truths.
                                        • Anthracite coal: A form of carbonized ancient plants the hardest and cleanest-burning of all similar material.

                                        The Industrial Revolution brought enormous advances in productivity, but with steep environmental costs. During the Industrial Revolution, environmental pollution in the United States increased with the emergence of new sources of fuel, large factories, and sprawling urban centers.

                                        Fossil Fuels

                                        Fossil fuels powered the Industrial Revolution. In 1790, anthracite coal was first discovered in what is now known as the Coal Region of Pennsylvania. A harder and high-quality form of coal, anthracite soon became the primary source of fuel in the United States for domestic and industrial use. It fueled factory furnaces, steam-powered boats, and machinery. The consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels eventually gave rise to unprecedented air pollution. In 1881, Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws to promote cleaner air.

                                        Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings, New Mexico, ca. 1935: Coal tends to release large quantities of carbon as it is burned to make electricity.

                                        Modern Cities and Sanitation

                                        The environmental effects of industrialization were especially concentrated in cities. Unsanitary conditions and overcrowding afflicted many American cities, where outbreaks of disease, including cholera and typhoid, were common. Untreated human waste was a major environmental hazard as rapidly growing cities lacked sewer systems and relied on contaminated wells within city confines for drinking water supplies. In the mid-nineteenth century, after the link between contaminated water and disease was established, many cities built centralized water-supply systems. However, waste water continued to be discharged without treatment, due to public health officials’ confidence in the self-purifying capacity of rivers, lakes, and the sea.

                                        Hand bill from the New York City Board of Health, 1832: The cholera outbreak of 1832 was related to overcrowding and unsanitary conditions that attended the Industrial Revolution.

                                        Early Environmentalism

                                        In the early nineteenth century, policymakers and the public had little awareness of the extent of industry’s impact on the environment. Some effects were self-evident to attentive observers, however, and the rise of industrialization and urbanization did inspire a new appreciation for the natural world among some. Transcendentalism, an intellectual movement of the 1830s and 1840s, elevated nature in popular poems, stories, and essays of the time. Transcendentalist author Henry David Thoreau is best known for his work Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings. Thoreau also wrote on the subjects of natural history and philosophy and anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern day environmentalism.

                                        Henry David Thoreau, 1856: Thoreau’s writings celebrated nature and a simple life and provided a critique of urban and industrial values.


                                        14) Banking

                                        Various advancements in Banking Systems along with industrial financiers also were quite prominent for the industrial revolution on the global front.

                                        In the 1770s, London welcomed its first Stock Exchange, and in the 1790s, the New York Stock Exchange established.

                                        Adam Smith, a Scottish Social Philosopher, published Wealth of Nations in 1776, in which he spoke about an economic system with free enterprise alongside a lack of government interference and the private ownership of means of production.

                                        Wrapping it up!

                                        In conclusion, the causes which resulted in a full-fledged Industrial Revolution were many, some big and some small.

                                        Each had their role to play and was of significant importance.

                                        The emergence of capitalism as a theory which helped the economic power shift and starts several businesses was considered as a significant factor concerning the Industrial Revolution.

                                        Secondly, European imperialism and its expansion across the globe, and thus, the proliferation of raw materials as well as large markets, was another significant factor.

                                        Third, the Agricultural Revolution, which fed the increasing population, further, helped the Industrial Revolution grow along with the economies.

                                        It led to a tremendous increase in the production of food as well as the population throughout European societies, especially Britain. This further resulted in the expansion of the workforce for use within mines and factories.

                                        Lastly, the innovations in technology helped the workers, as well as the farmers, yield better results. Transportation, as well as communication, was improved with a significant reduction in the time taken for the entire process.

                                        Everything picked up the pace with improvement and the emergence of innovative technologies. The presence of beneficial governmental policies further boosted the rise of technology and even motivated people by providing them with patents over their ideas.

                                        There was a new culture of dedicated, hard-working as well as risk-taking cultivated in the Industrial Revolution. This further help cities and towns flourish under the revolution.

                                        So, this was all about the industrial revolution that played a pivotal role in changing the world in the last three centuries.

                                        How important do you consider the industrial revolution in improving our lives and channelizing innovations on the global front? Did we miss any of the causes of the Industrial Revolution? Update us with your views in the comment section below.


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