Sawfish SS-276 - History

Sawfish SS-276 - History

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(SS-276: dp. 1,526 (surf.), 2,410 (subm.); 1. 311'8"; b. 27'4"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20.25 k. (surf.), 8.75 (subm.); cpl. 60, a. 10 21' tt., 1 3", 2 .50 eel. mg., 2 .30 eel. mg.; cl. Gato)

Sawfish (SS-276) was laid down on 20 January 1942 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N.H.

launched on 23 June 1942; sponsored by the Honorable Hattie Wyatt Caraway, the first woman to be elected to the United States Senate; and commissioned on 26 August 1942, Lt. Comdr. Eugene T. Sands in command.

After shakedown-off Portsmouth, in Narragansett Bay, and en route to the Panama Canal-the new submarine arrived at Pearl Harbor on 21 January 1943. Ten days later, she got underway for the first of her 10 war patrols.

Sawfish proceeded to waters off southwestern Japan where she attacked several targets and concluded that she had sunk or damaged some. However, a careful study of Japanese and American records after the war did not confirm any sinkings on Sawfish's first war patrol which ended when she reached Midway on 25 March.

The submarine departed Midway on 15 April and headed for Japan. On 5 May off the coast of Honshu she sank the converted gunboat, Hakkai Maru. A fortnight later, she stalked an enemy task force but lost her quarry in heavy swells. She returned to Pearl Harbor on 6 June.

Underway again on the last day of the month Sawfish set course for the East China Sea. On the night of 21 July, she attacked a convoy of nine ships and concluded that she had scored several hits. However, postwar assessment of records was unable to confirm any kills during this attack or during her operations for the next five days.

Finally, early on the morning of the 27th, her luck finally changed when she attacked a convoy escorted by a 720-ton minelayer. Sands fired a spread of four torpedoes from a range of only 750 yards. He went deep as soon as the "fish" were clear and, in less than half a minute, the submarine was jolted by a violent explosion. Fearing that the detonation had been premature, Sands remained deep for over an hour. When he ascended to periscope depth, the convoy had escaped, but the escort, coastal minelayer, Hirashima was sinking. Sawfish returned to Pearl Harbor on 10 August.

During her fourth patrol, 10 September to 16 October, defective torpedoes frustrated the seven attacks which she made in the Sea of Japan before she returned to Midway. She got underway for the Bonins and her fifth patrol on 1 November. On 8 December she sank 3,267-ton passenger-cargo ship, Sansei Maru and returned to Midway on the 19th. She soon proceeded to Hunter's Point Navy Yard, San Francisco Calif., for overhaul.

Back in top trim, the submarine returned to Pearl Harbor early in the spring. On 8 April 1944, she got underway for Japanese waters and her sixth war patrol. However, she only encountered two targets: a cargo ship which she attacked on the 25th and a second vessel which she sighted four days later-too fast and too far away for the submarine to attack. Although the submarine reported scoring two hits on the cargo ship, Japanese records contain no evidence of any sinking in the vicinity of the attack.

During her seventh war patrol, Sawfish joined Rock (SS-274) and Tilefish (SS 307) for wolfpack operations. The submarines sortied from Majuro on 22 June and headed for the Philippines. On 18 July, she damaged a tanker and, on the 26th, fired a spread of four torpedoes at surfaced Japanese submarine, 1-29, which exploded and sank. After a fruitless chase of a large Japanese convoy the wolfpack ended the patrol at Pearl Harbor on 15 August.

During Sawfish's eighth war patrol, her commanding officer, Comdr. Alan B. Banister, led a wolfpack which included Drum (SS-228), Icefish (SS-367) and from time to time other submarines. The pack departed Pearl Harbor on 9 September and headed for waters south of Formosa where the submarines took a heavy toll on enemy shipping. Sawfish, herself, accounted for 6,521-ton tanker, Tachibana Maru, on 9 October and 6,838-ton seaplane tender, Kimikawa Maru, on the 23d. During the patrol, Sawfish also served on lifeguard station off Formosa in support of carrier raids. On 16 October, she rescued a pilot who had survived four and one half days at sea in a small rubber boat without food, water, or sunshade. The wolfpack returned to Majuro on 8 November.

Sawfish got underway on 17 December 1944 and returned to waters off Formosa where she spent her entire ninth war patrol on lifeguard station. She rescued a pilot on 21 January 1945 before heading toward Guam. She reached Apra Harbor on 4 February for refit.

Sawfish sailed on 10 March for her 10th and last war patrol which she spent on lifeguard station off Nansei Shoto supporting air strikes preparing for and covering the conquest of Okinawa. She returned to Pearl Harbor on 26 April and soon proceeded to San Francisco for overhaul in the Bethlehem Steel Company yard there. She was ready for action and heading toward Hawaii on 15 August when hostilities ended. She reached Pearl Harbor on the 22nd but soon headed back to the west coast for duty as a training ship for the West Coast Fleet Sound School. She returned to Hawaii early in 1946, but was back at San Francisco on 22 March for inactivation. She was decommissioned on 26 June 1946 and remained in reserve at Mare Island until May 1947 when she proceeded to San Pedro for duty as a Naval Reserve training ship. On 1 April 1960, Sawfish was struck from the Navy list and scrapped.

Sawfish received eight battle stars for service during World War II.

USS Sawfish

USS Sawfish (SS-276), a  Gato-class submarine, was a ship of the United States Navy named for the sawfish, a viviparous ray which has a long flat snout with a row of toothlike structures along each edge. It is found principally in the mouths of tropical American and African rivers.

Sawfish (SS-276) was laid down on 20 January 1942 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine launched on 23 June 1942 sponsored by Hattie Wyatt Caraway, the first woman to be elected to the United States Senate and commissioned on 26 August 1942, Lieutenant Commander Eugene T. Sands in command.

After shakedown—off Portsmouth, in Narragansett Bay, and en route to the Panama Canal—the new submarine arrived at Pearl Harbor on 21 January 1943. Ten days later, she got underway for the first of her 10 war patrols.

World War II Database

ww2dbase The submarine Sawfish held her shakedown cruiser in Narragansett Bay before sailing for Hawaii via the Panama Canal. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 2 Jan 1943 and got underway for her first of ten patrols on 31 Jan. During the course of the war, she patrolled waters off Japan, China, and Taiwan, scoring kills either alone or as a member of a wolfpack. She also performed rescue missions from time to time, including the rescue of a downed pilot off Taiwan on 16 Oct 1944 and another on 21 Jan 1945. When the war ended, she just came out of the drydocks, en route back to Pearl Harbor. She was decommissioned by the Navy on 26 Jun 1946 and became a Naval Reserve training ship in May 1947. She was scrapped in 1960.

ww2dbase Source: Wikipedia.

Last Major Revision: Aug 2006

Submarine Sawfish (SS-276) Interactive Map

Sawfish Operational Timeline

26 Aug 1942 Sawfish was commissioned into service.
26 Jun 1946 Sawfish was decommissioned from service.

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Third war patrol, June – August 1943 [ edit | edit source ]

Underway again on the last day of the month, Sawfish set course for the East China Sea. On the night of 21 July, she attacked a convoy of nine ships and concluded that she had scored several hits. However, postwar assessment of records was unable to confirm any kills during this attack or during her operations for the next five days. Finally, early on the morning of 27 July, her luck changed when she attacked a convoy escorted by a 720-ton minelayer. Comdr. Sands fired a spread of four torpedoes from a range of only 750 yards (690 m). He went deep as soon as the “fish” were clear and, in less than half a minute, the submarine was jolted by a violent explosion. Fearing that the detonation had been premature, Sands remained deep for over an hour. When he ascended to periscope depth, the convoy had escaped, but the escort, coastal minelayer, Hirashima, was sinking. Sawfish returned to Pearl Harbor on 10 August.

A Ray of Hope in Costa Rica

Starting this year, Espinoza and his team have joined a global research collaboration to detect sawfishes by sampling water for trace amounts of sawfish DNA, known as environmental DNA or eDNA. The test has the ability to detect evidence of sawfishes over a half-mile stretch of water left behind by the fish in a three- or four-day window.

The eDNA research is part of a global sawfish eDNA hunt coordinated by Simpfendorfer to determine where researchers should focus their conservation efforts. “We want to really make sure that we focus those conservation efforts in places that we will get the best results and that we can start to see recovery in populations. The [eDNA] is really the only effective way to do this on a broad global scale,” Simpfendorfer says. In addition to Costa Rica, Simpfendorfer has sent out eDNA sampling kits to researchers in 15 other countries including Bangladesh, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, and Australia.

Espinoza knows his quest doesn’t end at locating the fish. “From the experiences of Florida and Australia, I knew these types of conservation efforts take a lot of time, and you have to combine all the tools, like education, outreach, and research to have positive outcomes,” he says.

To that end, Espinoza has been instrumental in successfully lobbying the Costa Rican government to provide legal protection to sawfish, which it enacted in 2017. Through his national sawfish conservation initiative, En Busca del Pez Sierra - Costa Rica (“Looking for Sawfish in Costa Rica”), he and his team are raising national awareness around sawfishes and promoting education in coastal communities to teach fishers that the fish are protected and how to release and report sawfish when they do catch them.

A Lifeboat Survival Saga

Read a Merchant Mariner's personal account of 20 days at sea after a Japanese submarine attack on the Indian Ocean.

While much of the focus on WWII history is centered on large battles or critical campaigns, people often overlook the importance of the logistical side of the conflict. America’s aim to become the world’s “Arsenal of Democracy” was not just a nifty propaganda slogan—the United States produced over 41 billion rounds of ammunition, nearly 300,000 aircraft, and over 88,000 tanks during World War II.

In order to move all the matériel needed to win the war, the US Merchant Marine would have to play a major role, but it had many hurdles to clear. The Great Depression had a devastating effect on merchant shipbuilding in the United States during the 1930s. In response, Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, which created the US Maritime Commission, tasked with the mission to modernize and build ships for the looming world war. Originally slated to build 50 ships a year for 10 years, the Maritime Commission ended up building over 5,000 ships by the end of 1945, including 2,710 of the iconic Liberty ships.

However, in December 1941, there were only 12 million tons of shipping vessels under US registration to move men and matériel to combat the Japanese, Germans, and Italians. Worse, American industrial capacity had only committed 15 percent to defense in 1941. The lack of Allied shipping, particularly in the Pacific theater, would prove to be one of the key factors in determining when an offensive could be launched against the Japanese.

The Allies did have one advantage: the Japanese naval submarine doctrine was drastically different from the German navy’s. While the German U-boat force was trying to starve the British into submission in Europe, the Japanese did not particularly target merchant shipping. Only one paragraph in the 1943 edition of the Japanese navy’s Combined Fleet Tactical Instructions was dedicated to attacks on enemy lines of communication. The Japanese envisioned their submarines weakening an American fleet sailing across the Pacific before finally destroying the remnants in a repetition of the 1905 Battle of Tsushima, in which the Japanese smashed the Russian fleet and won a stunning victory.

Setting sail from Cape Town, South Africa, and the first torpedo hit.
Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

An accounting of the men in each lifeboat after the second torpedo hit. Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

Taking stock of the provisions men grabbed on the way to the lifeboat. Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

An accounting of the supplies available in the lifeboat, and recognition that rationing had begun. Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

Describing the meals the men have had after four days in the lifeboat. Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

The dire water situation facing the men after 10 days in the lifeboat.
Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

The first hot beverage—and real food—in more than 20 days. Gift of Neva Murphy, 2017.015

The Japanese, however, occasionally attacked merchant shipping in the Pacific during the war—unfortunately for 2nd Mate Arnold T. Hansen and the SS Paul Luckenbach. Built in Germany in 1913 and originally named Mark, the Paul Luckenbach was seized by the United States in Manila during World War I. Renamed the Suwanee, the ship worked as a troop transport before being sold and converted to cargo in the 1920s and again renamed. The Paul Luckenbach was carrying cargo when it sailed from Cape Town, South Africa, on September 7, 1942, and headed into the Indian Ocean to avoid fighting raging around Madagascar. The ship was in the middle of the Indian Ocean when it was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-29 at 6:25 p.m. on September 22, 1942. After the first torpedo strike, there was some hope of saving the vessel, but I-29 put another torpedo into the ship an hour later, forcing the crew to abandon ship and load into lifeboats. The cargo of 18 tanks and 10 B-25 Mitchell medium bombers was lost.

Hansen was put in charge of one of the four lifeboats containing the 61 seamen and US Naval Armed Guard of the Luckenbach. He and the 16 men on his lifeboat then embarked on a 20-day odyssey across the Indian Ocean to try to reach land. Hansen kept a detailed daily journal about his crewmembers' time on the lifeboat, which the Museum is fortunate to have in its collection. Reading Hansen’s account is a remarkable window to the daunting survival task the men aboard faced. Fortunately, everyone in Hansen’s charge survived to make landfall in India on October 12, 1942, after a lifeboat journey of over 800 miles. Hansen was sent back home to the United States and was in New York City by November 23, 1942.

I-29 went on to have a remarkable wartime record for a Japanese submarine. It was one of the few Japanese submarines to make multiple successful Yanagi missions to Germany, during which the Germans and the Japanese traded raw materials and technical data. Its commander during the Yanagi missions was Takazau Kinashi, who fired the most successful single spread of torpedoes in World War II. The torpedoes sank the carrier USS Wasp (CV-7) and destroyer USS O’Brien (DD-415) and badly damaged the battleship USS North Carolina (BB-55) on September 15, 1942, near the Solomon Islands. Kinashi was awarded the Iron Cross Second Class for the feat by Adolf Hitler himself.

However, luck soon ran out for the I-29. Alerted by intelligence intercepts, the submarine USS Sawfish (SS-276) sighted I-29 on the surface on July 26, 1944, and struck her with three torpedoes, destroying the vessel and killing all but one crewmember aboard.

Top photo: The SS Paul Luckenbach sailing as a troop ship during World War I. Named the USS Suwanee during the war, it was used by the US Navy as a troop transport between the United States and Europe. Image: Naval History & Heritage Command Photograph NH 104801 donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2007.

James Linn

A New Orleans native, James Linn first became involved with the institution then known as The National D-Day Museum in 2001 as an eighth-grade volunteer on weekends and during the summer. Linn joined The National WWII Museum staff in 2014 and served as a Curator until 2020.

Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships

On 9 September, Wahoo again departed Pearl. She topped off with fuel at Midway and left there on 13 September heading for the dangerous but important Japan Sea. Shortly afterwards, USS Sawfish (SS-276) left Midway and also headed for this area. Wahoo was to pass through Etorofu Strait, in the Kurile Islands, and La Perouse Strait, between Hokkaido and Karafuto, and enter the Japan Sea about 20 September. She was to head south and remain below 43 degrees north after 23 September, and below 40 degrees north after 26 September. Sawfish was to follow Wahoo, entering the Japan Sea about 23 September and patrolling the area north of Wahoo.

No transmission was received from Wahoo, either by any shore station or by Sawfish, nor was she sighted by Sawfish after she left Midway. She had orders to clear her area not later than sunset 21 October 1943, and to report by radio after passing through the Kurile Island chain en route to Midway. This report was expected about 23 October, but Midway waited in vain. By 30 October, apprehension was felt for Wahoo's safety and an aircraft search along her expected course was arranged. When this revealed nothing, Wahoo was reported missing and presumed lost on 9 November 1943.

Although no transmission was received from Wahoo after her departure on patrol, the results of one of her attacks became known to the world via a Tokyo broadcast. Domei was quoted as reporting that on 5 October, a "steamer" was sunk by an American submarine off the west coast of Honshu near the Straits of Tsushima. It was said that the ship sank "after several seconds" with 544 people losing their lives. The submarine could have been none other than Wahoo none other was operating in that area.

Information gleaned from Japanese sources since the cessation of hostilities indicates that an antisubmarine attack was made in La Perouse Strait on 11 October 1943. This was two days after Sawfish went through the Straits. Supplementary data on the attack of 11 October state, ". . . our plane found a floating sub and attacked it, with 3 depth charges." Sawfish was attacked here while making her passage, and that attack is not mentioned in Japanese records the primary attacking agency in that case was a patrol boat, and about five depth charges were dropped. This it is safe to assume that the attack cited here was made on Wahoo, and is not the attack on Sawfish with an incorrect date. Both Tsushima Straits, where the attack on the steamer was made, and La Perouse Straits, through which Wahoo was to make good her exit from the Japan Sea, are known to have been mined. This despite the fact that Sawfish transited La Perouse on 9 October and reported no indication of mining. It is felt, however, that Wahoo succumbed to the attack referred to above, and not to a mine.

Wahoo was one of the Submarine Force's most valuable units during her six patrols, and her feats have become submarine legend. She sank 27 ships, totaling 119,100 tons, and damaged two more, making 24,900 tons, in the six patrols completed before her loss. Her patrolling career began in August 1942 in the Carolines. On this patrol Wahoo sank a freighter. Her second patrol was in the Solomons, and she sank a freighter. Wahoo conducted her third patrol in the Palau area. She sank two large freighters, a transport, a tanker, and an escort vessel. In addition, she entered Wewak harbor, on the north coast of New Guinea, seriously damaged a destroyer, which was later found beached there, and obtained reconnaissance data. For her fourth patrol, Wahoo went to the Yellow Sea west of Korea. Here she sank eight freighters, a tanker, a patrol craft and two sampans in March 1943.

Going to the Kurile chain for her fifth patrol, Wahoo sank two freighters and a large tanker, also doing damage to another freighter and a large (15,600 ton) aircraft transport. The sixth patrol of Wahoo was the disappointing one in the Japan Sea due to poor torpedo performance. Not one of the many attacks on merchantmen resulted in a torpedo hit Wahoo's only sinkings were of three sampans by gunfire.

Japanese records now reveal that the following ships were sunk in the Sea of Japan shortly before Wahoo's loss Taiko Maru (2,958 tons) 25 September Konron Maru (7,903 tons) 1 October Kanko Maru (1,288 tons) 6 October and, Kanko Maru (2,995 tons) 9 October. Wahoo was the only submarine which could have sunk these ships.

Wahoo was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for her third patrol. Commander Morton was considered one of the topnotch officers in the Submarine Force, and the loss of this boat was an irreparable blow to the Service.

Largetooth Sawfish References

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Anon. 1996. Request for information on sawfishes, Family Pristidae. Shark News (6) March: p. 2.

Anon. 1996. Sawfishes considered for CITES- advice sought. Shark News (7) July: p. 3.

Baughman, J.L. 1952. The marine fishes of Texas. The sawfishes. Texas Game and Fish 10(4):28-29.

Baughman, J. L. 1943. Notes on sawfish Pristis perotteti Muller and Henle, not previously reported from the waters of the United States. Copeia 1943: 43-48.

Bigelow, H. B. and W. C. Schroeder. 1953. Sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays. Fishes of The Western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res.1: 1-514.

Caldwell, S. 1990. Texas sawfish: which way did they go? TIDE. Jan/Feb: 16-19.

Charvet-Almeida, P. 2002. Sawfish trade in the north of Brazil. Shark News: Newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group 14: 9.

Cook, S.F. and M. Oetinger. 1997. Proposal in support of listing sawfishes (F. Pristidae) at the 10th regular conference of the parties to CITES, Zimbabwe, June 9-20, 1997, 31 p.

Cook, S.F., Compagno, L., and Oetinger, M. 1995. Status of the largetooth sawfish Pristis perotteti Muller and Henle, 1841. Shark News (4) July: p. 5.

Cook, S. F. and Oetinger, M. 1996. Proposal in support of listing sawfishes (F. Pristidae) at the 10th regular conference of the parties to CITES.

Deynat, P.P. 2005. New data on the systematics and interrelationships of sawfishes (Elasmobranchii, Batoidea, Pristiformes). Journal of Fish Biology 66 (5):1447-1458.

Fordham, S. V. and Mairs, S. 1999. Petition to list North American populations of sawfish (Pristis pectinata and Pristis perotteti) as endangered persuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. §1533. 99. Washington D.C., Center for Marine Conservation.

Fowler, S. 1998. Recent sawfish records. Shark News: Newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group12: 4.

Hoffman, L. 1913. Zur kenntnis des neurocranium der Pristiden und Pristiophoriden. Zoologisches Jahrbucher 33: 234-360 [German].

Hoover, J.J. 2008. Searching for a sawfish: a history of the hunt. Am. Curr. 34:1-15.

Latham, J. 1794. An essay on the various species of sawfish. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 2: 273-282.

McDavitt, M.T. 2006. Summary of trade in sawfishes and sawfish parts. Unpublished report.

McDavitt, M.T. and Charvet-Almeida, P. 2004. Quantifying trade in sawfish rostra: two examples. Shark News 16: 10– 11.

McDavitt, M. T. 2002. Lake Nicaragua revisited: conversations with a former sawfish fisherman. Shark News: Newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group 14: 5.

McDavitt, M.T. 1996. The cultural and economic importance of sawfishes (family Pristidae), Shark News [Newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group] 8 (1996), pp. 10–11.

Miller, W.A. 1995. Rostral and dental development in sawfish (Pristis perotteti). Journal of Aquariculture & Aquatic Sciences 7: 98-107.

Miller, W.A. 1974. Observations on the developing rostrum and rostral teeth of sawfish: Pristis perotteti and P. pectinatus. Copeia (2): 311-318.

Montoya, R.V. and Thorson, T.B. 1982. The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas and largetooth sawfish Pristis perotteti in Lake Bayano, a tropical man-made impoundment in Panama. Environ. Biol. Fishes 7:341-347.

Shields, S. A. 1879. A large sawfish. Am. Nat. 13: 262.

Simpfendorfer C.A. 2000. Predicting Population Recovery Rates for Endangered Western Atlantic Sawfishes Using Demographic Analysis. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 58(4)371 – 377.

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Thorson, T.B. 1982. Life history implications of a tagging study of the largetooth sawfish, Pristis perotteti, in the Lake Nicaragua-Rio San Juan system. Environmental Biology of Fishes 7(3):207-228.

Thorson, T.B. 1982. The impact of commercial exploitation on sawfish and shark populations in Lake Nicaragua. Fisheries 7(2):2-10.

Thorson, T.B. 1980. La explotacion excesiva del pez sierra, Pristis perotteti en el Lago Nicaragua. ConCiencia 7(1): 11-13.

Thorson, T.B. 1976. Observations on the reproduction of the sawfish, Pristis perotteti, in Lake Nicaragua, with recommendations for its conservation. In: T.B. Thorson, ed. Investigations of the Ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln: pp. 641-650.

Thorson, T.B. 1974. Occurrence of the sawfish, Pristis perotteti, in the Amazon River, with notes on P. pectinatus. Copeia (2): 560-564.

Thorson, T.B. 1973. Sexual dimorphism in number of rostral teeth of the sawfish, Pristis perotteti Muller and Henle, 1841. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 102(3): 612-614.

Thorson, T.B., C.M. Cowan, and D.E. Watson. 1966. Sharks and sawfish in the Lake Izabal-Rio Dulce system, Guatemala. Copeia (3):620-622.

Wahlquist, H. 1966. A field key to the batoid fishes (sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays) of Florida and adjacent waters. Technical Series No. 50, Florida Board of Conservation, St. Petersburg, FL. 20 pp.

Sawfish SS-276 - History

The fundamental plane (FP) scaling relations and their evolution are a powerful tool for studying the global properties of early-type galaxies and their evolutionary history. The form of the FP, as derived by surveys in the local Universe at wavelengths ranging from the U to the K band, cannot be explained by metallicity variations alone among early-type galaxies systematic variations in age, dark matter content, or homology breaking are required. A large-scale study of early-type galaxies at 0.1 < z < 0.6 demonstrates that the SB intercept of the FP, the rest frame (U-V) colour, and the absorption line strengths all evolve passively, thereby implying a high mean formation redshift for the stellar content. The slope of the FP evolves with redshift, which is broadly consistent with systematic age effects occurring along the early-type galaxy sequence. The implication that the least luminous early-type galaxies formed later than the luminous galaxies is discussed in the context of the evolution of the colour-magnitude relation, the Butcher-Oemler effect and hierarchical galaxy formation models.


We are happy to offer a classic style 5 panel custom US Navy submarine SS 276 USS Sawfish embroidered hat.

For an additional (and optional) charge of $7.00, our hats can be personalized with up to 2 lines of text of 14 characters each (including spaces), such as with a veteran’s last name and rate and rank on the first line, and years of service on the second line.

Our SS 276 USS Sawfish embroidered hat comes in two styles for your choosing. A traditional “high profile” flat bill snap back style (with an authentic green under visor on the bottom of the flat bill), or a modern “medium profile” curved bill velcro back “baseball cap” style. Both styles are “one size fits all”. Our hats are made of durable 100% cotton for breathability and comfort.

Given high embroidery demands on these “made to order” hats, please allow 4 weeks for shipment.

If you have any questions about our hat offerings, please contact us at 904-425-1204 or e-mail us at [email protected] , and we will be happy to speak to you!

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