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(DD-496: dp. 1,630; 1. 348'3"; b. 36'1"; dr. 17'5"; s. 35 k.; cpl. 276; a. 4 5", 4 40mm., 4 20mm., 5 21" tt., 6 dcp.,2 dct.; cl. Gleaves)
The second McCook (DD-496) was laid down 1 May 1941 at the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp., Seattle Wash.; launched 30 April 1942; sponsored by Mrs. Reed Knox, granddaughter of Commander McCook; and commissioned 15 March 1943, Lt Comdr. S. G. Anderson, in command.
After shakedown out of San Diego, McCook sailed for the east coast 22 May 1943. She reported at Norfolk for duty in the Atlantic Fleet, 6 June, and by the end of the month had begun her first escort assignment, a convoy to Casablanca, departing Norfolk 26 June and returning 17 July. Before the end of the year she completed two more north African convoys, one to the United Kingdom and numerous escort assignments along the northeastern coast. On 15 December, she reported to COTCLANT and spent the next 6 weeks training destroyer crews out of Norfolk. Detached from training duties, McCook resumed escort work 31 January 1944 when she sailed for Trinidad with new carrier Wasp (CV-8) on her shakedown cruise, returning with her to Boston 27 February.
Further training in antisubmarine and antiaircraft warfare took up much of March as McCook prepared to return to European waters. On 18 April, she joined TG 27.8 and steamed for the United Kingdom, arriving at Plymouth on the 28th. The destroyer continued on to Portland and from there participated in a month of intensive amphibious landing exercises at Slapton Sands and at Belfast..
At Weymouth Roads 28 May Mccook was caught in an air raid in which she suffered damage to her radar, sound equipment, rangefinder, and main battery director in addition to having five guns disabled and losing steering control from the bridge. Luckily there were no personnel casualties. The damage threatened to keep her out of the upcoming invasion for which she had been training for the past month. But the fast and efficient craftsmen on board the destroyer tender Melville (AD-2) quickly had her back in fighting trim.
On 5 June, McCook departed with DesRon 18 and ships of Assault Force "O" for the coast of France. Early 6 June, she arrived in the Baie de la Seine and at 0320 commenced bombardment of the beaches and waterfront of the Point du Ho - Vierville Sur Mer area. By 0616 she had neutralized her assigned targets (three pillboxes, 13 machinegun nests and three shore guns) and had begun to take on targets of opportunity. By the end of the day, she had added to her score seven pillboxes, eight gun emplacements and 10 stone houses, in which enemy machine guns and snipers had been placed.
Resupplying and fueling at Portland and Plymouth, McCook continued to operate in the invasion area until 14 July. Four days later she was en route to Bizerte screening a convoy of LSTs and LGIs. She delivered her charges on the 28th and steamed to Mers-el-Kebir, where she remained until 4 August. She then sailed to Naples to Join the forces assembling for operation "Anvil," the invasion of southern France. On the 13th she sailed for France, arriving on the 14th to take up a screening position south of Toulon. For the next 35 days she remained in the assault area providing gunfire support and screen protection to the Allied combatants and to the supply and reinforcement convoys from Corsica and Naples
She departed for the United States via Oran and Gibraltar on 21 September. She arrived at New York 3 October, and operated off the east coast until close to the end of the year. She again resumed transatlantic convoy duties on 28 December, completing six by 24 May 1945 when she entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard. There she commenced conversion to a destroyer-minesweeper. She was reclassified DMS-6 o,n 30 May.
Her conversion completed on 12 July, she conducted mine!sweeping exercises until 12 August. She then departed for postwar duties in the western Pacific.
McCook arrived at Okinawa 28 September and, after riding out two typhoons, commenced minesweeping operations in the Yellow Sea toward the end of October. Working with MinRon 1, she cut 77 of the 500 mines swept by that group during the period 23 October to 15 November.
She arrived at Sasebo for duty in the coastal waters of Japan on 17 November. Assigned a courier trip to Wakayama, 14 December, she suffered extensive damage in a typhoon on the return voyage. Repairs were begun upon her return to Sasebo on the 18th and finished the next month. She sailed to the Kure Hiroshima area to check the swept channels in the Inland Sea on 3 February 1946. Accomplishing that mission by the 26th she steamed to Shanghai, returning 2 weeks later to Japan. She departed Yokosuka on 12 March for the United States, arriving at San Francisco on 31 March.
McCook remained at San Francisco until 14 January 1947 when she was ordered to San Diego. Working primarily with the Underwater Training Unit, San Diego, she operated out of that port for the next 2 years. She also participated in destroyer squadron exercises and battle problems off the California coast and in the Hawaiian Islands. A cruise to the Marshalls and the Marianas, 7 July to 11 September 1947, was her only oversee deployment during this period.
By January 1949, deactivation had begun aboard McCook and on 27 May she was decommissioned and was berthed at San Diego as a part of the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Reclassified DD-495 on 15 July 1955, into 1969 she remains berthed at Bremerton.
McCook received three battle stars for World War II service.
USS McCook DD-496 (1942-1972)
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Chicago Area Reservoir to Save Estimated $114 Million in Flood and Pollution Reduction
The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRD) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers last week celebrated the completion of the first phase of the McCook Reservoir project, a key component of MWRD’s plan to reduce flood damage and sewer overflow pollution in the Chicago area. Black & Veatch has provided planning, design, engineering and construction support on various aspects of MWRD’s Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) since 2001, including design and construction services for the McCook Main Tunnel System (MTS) that connects TARP’s Mainstream Tunnel to the McCook Reservoir.
McCook Reservoir Stage I provides an additional 3.5 billion gallons of storage capacity to capture flood water and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and is estimated to provide $114 million annually in flood damage and CSO pollution reduction benefits. TARP reduces flooding by storing CSOs, which during wet weather events would otherwise flow into and pollute Lake Michigan and the region’s waterways, until they are able to be treated. As a result, regional water quality is also enhanced.
“The McCook Reservoir will alleviate flooding impacts for millions of residents in the region. We are excited to celebrate the completion of the first phase, and look forward to continuing to bolster our flood mitigation efforts that support the local community with our project partners.”
Mariyana Spyropoulos, President of the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District Board of Commissioners
With McCook Stage I on line, the TARP system now has a flood storage capacity of more than 14 billion gallons.
“The McCook Reservoir is one of the final components of TARP, one of the largest public works projects for pollution and flood control. It is the result of tremendous collaboration in support of an overarching goal to protect the environment. Including the McCook Reservoir and MTS, this project has helped restore the charm and quality of Chicago’s rivers and fostered greater connectivity to water resources for millions of people.”
Faruk Oksuz, Black & Veatch Vice President and project director in the company’s water business
“From planning to construction, state-of-the-art practices such as deep rock grouting and one-of-a-kind high pressure roller gates for tunnels were applied throughout the project,” said Leon Schieber, Director of Business Development, Black & Veatch Federal Business. “The McCook Reservoir will protect Lake Michigan, the region’s water supply and the regional economy tied to Lake Michigan as well.”
In addition to 109 miles of deep tunnel systems and McCook Reservoir, TARP includes two other storage reservoirs – Majewski (350 million gallons) and the Thornton Composite Reservoir (7.9 billion gallons). When Stage II of McCook is fully completed in 2029, it will have a capacity of 10 billion gallons and surpass Thornton as the largest reservoir of its kind in the world.
- When McCook Reservoir Stage II is completed, the reservoir will deliver an estimated total of $143 million per year in flood reduction benefits and will bring TARP’s total capacity to more than 20.5 billion gallons of flood protection and combined sewer overflow storage.
- The MTS is a more than 1,600-foot-long, 33-foot-diameter tunnel that includes connections, gates, access shafts and energy dissipation structures.
- Black & Veatch has supported multiple components of TARP with both the MWRD and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, including design and construction support services for the Thornton Composite Reservoir, Thorn Creek Connection Tunnel, and the McCook Reservoir Main Tunnel and Des Plaines Inflow Tunnel, both of which connect to the McCook Reservoir.
- Black & Veatch has completed nearly 10,000 projects and more than 12,000 miles of water, wastewater and stormwater conveyance worldwide. Learn more here.
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Main battery director
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Outlaws MC Chapters
Each branch of the Outlaws MC is known as a chapter, or sometimes also referred to as a charter.
The Outlaws Motorcycle Club has a very significant number of chapters in the USA, as well as throughout the rest of the world, particularly in Germany where there are dozens of Outlaws MC Germany chapters as well as many in England and Wales.
There are many other one percenter motorcycle clubs which also go by the name of the Outlaws, however are not part of this particular organization.
We have compiled a detailed list of the official Outlaws MC chapters, with many photos, which you can see in our article The Outlaws MC Chapters.
Outlaws MC Germany Member Outlaws MC clubhouse Detroit Michigan
At War With The Wind: : The Epic Struggle With Japan's World War II Suicide Bombers
In the last days of World War II, a new and baffling weapon terrorized the United States Navy in the Pacific. To the sailors who learned to fear them, the body-crashing warriors of Japan were known as "suiciders" among the Japanese, they were named for a divine wind that once saved the home islands from invasion: kamikaze.
Told from the perspective of the men who endured this horrifying tactic, At War with the Wind is the first book to recount in nail-biting detail what it was like to experience an attack by Japanese kamikazes. David Sears, acclaimed author of The Last Epic Naval Battle, draws on personal interviews and unprecedented research to create a narrative of war that is stunning in its vivid re-creations. Born of desperation in the face of overwhelming material superiority, suicide attacks--by aircraft, submarines, small boats, and even manned rocket-boosted gliders--were capable of inflicting catastrophic damage, testing the resolve of officers and sailors as never before. Sears's gripping account focuses on the vessels whose crews experienced the full range of the kamikaze nightmare. From carrier USS St. Lo, the first U.S. Navy vessel sunk by an orchestrated kamikaze attack, to USS Henrico, a transport ship that survived the landings at Normandy only to be sent to the Pacific and struck by suicide planes off Okinawa, and USS Mannert L. Abele, the only vessel sunk by a rocket-boosted piloted glider during the war, these unforgettable stories reveal, as never before, one of the most horrifying and misunderstood chapters of World War II.
This is the candid story of a war within a war--a relentless series of furious and violent engagements pitting men determined to die against men determined to live. Its echoes resonate hauntingly at a time of global conflict, when suicide as a weapon remains a perplexing and terrifying reality.
November 1, 1945--Leyte Gulf
The destroyer Killen (DD-593) was besieged, shooting down four planes, but taking a bomb hit from a fifth. Pharmacist mate Ray Cloud, watching from the fantail, saw the plane--a sleek twin-engine Frances fighter-bomber--swoop in low across the port side. As its pilot released his bomb, Cloud said to himself, "He dropped it too soon," and then watched as the plane roared by--pursued and chewed up by fire from Killen's 40- and 20-mm guns.
The bomb hit the water, skipped once and then penetrated Killen's port side hull forward, exploding between the #2 and #3 magazines. The blast tore a gaping hole in Killen's side and water poured in. By the time Donice Copeland, eighteen, a radar petty officer, emerged on deck from the radar shack, the ship's bow was practically submerged and the ship itself was nearly dead in the water.
Practically all the casualties were awash below decks. Two unwounded sailors, trapped below in the ship's emergency generator room, soon drowned. The final tally of dead eventually climbed to fifteen.
A Survey of US Ships Transferred to Britain in Exchange for Western Hemisphere Basing Rights
On 2 September 1940, in response to two requests by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in May and June of that year, the Congress of the United States approved a deal brokered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to transfer 50 old destroyers to bolster British escort forces in the face of heavy destroyer losses suffered by the Royal Navy due to Dunkirk and other costly operations. By the date the deal was approved, the RN had lost 33 destroyers of all types, the majority being modern, capable units. As a result of this agreement, the US gained basing rights at such locations as Argentia, Newfoundland, Canada, Bermuda Island and various Caribbean locations.
Following the German occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940, the ability of the Danish government to conduct any kind of independent foreign policy was curtailed. This was realized by the Danish ambassador in Washington, Mr. Kaufmann, who immediately declared himself independent from the Danish government. In accordance with US wishes, he therefore took upon himself to conclude an agreement in April, 1941, by which the US agreed to defend Greenland and Iceland, thereby gaining bases in those places to support the convoy lanes to Britain.
Between 9 September and 5 December 1940, the USN transferred 3 Shaw, 23 Wickes and 18 Clemson Class destroyers to the RN and 4 Wickes and 2 Clemson Class destroyers to the Royal Canadian Navy. The new HMS Hamilton (ex-USS Kalk) was damaged in a collision with the new HMS Georgetown and subsequently transferred from the RN to the RCN, becoming the HMCS Hamilton. In 1941, ten US Coast Guard 250-foot cutters were also transferred to Britain.
The destroyers transferred to the RN were given town names common to both Britain and the United States, as was the HMCS Annapolis. The other five ships transferred directly to the RCN were given the names of Canadian rivers. The destroyers in British service were known as the "Town Class" and broken into the "Belmont," "Lewes," "Campbeltown," and "Bath" groups. The former Coast Guard cutters were known as the "Banff" class and were designated as Escort Sloops.
The Belmont Group comprised the Clemson Class ships and the Lewes Group the Shaw Class ships. The Wickes Class ships were split between the Campbeltown Group with 75 tons more fuel and therefor greater range, and the Bath Group, comprising the remaining ships without increased bunkerage.
At the time of transfer, none of the US ships had been modified for anti-submarine warfare, much less received the "escort modification" later applied to a number of these ships remaining in USN service. Some ships required as much as four months of yard work before being considered suitable for use by the British. Royal Navy ship handlers complained about the ships' excessive tactical diameter and their liveliness in North Atlantic seas due to their very fine hull dimensions. Ratings found the ships' layout, accommodations and appointments alien, but adapted readily. During their service with the RN and RCN most of these ships lost two or three 4" SP guns, their antiquated 3" anti-aircraft gun and AA machine guns in favor of more modern RN weapons. Torpedo armament was quickly halved and in some cases relocated to the centerline. More depth charge stowage, K-gun and Y-gun depth charge projectors and eventually the Hedgehog ASW mortars were added. Sensor upgrades included the addition of radar, high frequency direction finding (HF/DF or "Huff Duff") equipment and improved ASDIC ("sonar" in US parlance).
Although some authors have made much of the contribution of these ships, even to the point of claiming they "saved the world," their primary benefit was to provide the British and Canadians with a large number of escort platforms - although of no great technical capability - until those nations could get sufficient numbers of modern destroyers and smaller escorts afloat to replace them. As new ships became available, the transferred vessels were rapidly withdrawn from escort duty and paid off or moved to such auxiliary roles as mobile aircraft target towing. Some were transferred to yet other Allied navies, including the free Norwegian and free Polish Navies, as well as to the Soviet Navy.
Ten of the destroyers and three of the cutters transferred were lost, as detailed below. One destroyer was rendered a constructive total loss (CTL) by bomb damage before it ever completed its initial yard work in Britain and was then used for testing and finally sold for scrap in 1944. Another destroyer was mined. Seven destroyers and one cutter fell to U-boat torpedoes. In retaliation, these transferred ships destroyed or assisted in the destruction of ten German U-boats and one Italian submarine, while two assisted in the capture and salvage of another U-boat. One of the ten U-boats sunk was the U-110, which was boarded and raided before it could founder, resulting in the capture of the Enigma coding machine, its coding wheels and cipher books.
One of the destroyers lost achieved unique fame HMS Campbeltown being expended as a floating bomb in a daring commando attack in which it rammed the gates of the Normandie Lock at Saint-Nazaire, a French city on the Biscay Coast. The ship was then blown up with a delay fuze to permit the crew time to escape. The Campbeltown's explosive exploit ensured that the German battleship Tirpitz would find no repair base in the Atlantic should she break out of the Arctic, diminishing the raider threat and making Campbeltown the most famous of the transferred destroyers.
Parallels In Time A History of Developmental Disabilities
The Administration on Developmental Disabilities (ADD) funded Home of Your Own Demonstration Projects in several states, and then entered into a cooperative agreement that led to the formation of the National Home of Your Own Alliance. The Alliance works to combine person-owned and controlled housing and personalized support to enable all people, including those with the most intensive support needs, to live in homes of their own choosing.
The changing perspectives on family support were reflected and promoted in amendments to the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (P.L. 101-496) on 1990. The Act stated that the purpose of family support services now included strengthening and maintaining the family unit and preventing inappropriate out of home placements.
Video: Ed Roberts, widely recognized as the father of the independent living movement, was also deeply committed to the Partners in Policymaking program. He loved to speak to Partners. He traveled across the country to meet Partners participants and share his personal story, encounters and adventures through service delivery systems. His words of encouragement and inspiration are as meaningful and needed today as they were during his lifetime.
1 Moyn , Samuel , The last utopia: human rights in history ( Cambridge, MA , 2010 )Google Scholar .
2 Reprinted as Cmiel , Kenneth , ‘ The recent history of human rights ’, in Iriye , Akira , Goedde , Petra , and Hitchcock , William I. , eds., The human rights revolution: an international history ( Oxford , 2012 ), pp. 27 – 51 Google Scholar .
3 Barnett , Michael , Empire of humanity: a history of humanitarianism ( Ithaca, NY , 2011 ), p. 5 Google Scholar .
4 Bass , Gary J. , Freedom's battle: the origins of humanitarian intervention ( New York, NY , 2008 )Google Scholar .
5 Rodogno , Davide , Against massacre: humanitarian interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815–1914: the emergence of a European concept and international practice ( Princeton, NJ , 2012 )Google Scholar .
6 Tusan , Michelle , Smyrna's ashes: humanitarianism, genocide and the birth of the Middle East ( Berkeley, CA , 2012 ), p. 7 Google Scholar .
7 Simms , Brendan and Trim , D. J. B. , eds., Humanitarian intervention: a history ( Cambridge , 2011 )CrossRefGoogle Scholar . See also Klose , Fabian , ed., The emergence of humanitarian intervention: concepts and practices from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries ( Cambridge , forthcoming)CrossRefGoogle Scholar .
8 Hunt , Lynn , Inventing human rights: a history ( New York, NY , 2007 )Google Scholar .
The only landing in Europe and Africa that got carrier support was the Torch landing in North Africa in late 1942. In that case, it was not possible to use land-based air support, since there weren't any bases there. All later European Theatre landings were within land-based air range (deliberately) and relied on it solely.
Aircraft carriers were very valuable, being necessary for fighting enemy fleets, supporting landings, raiding, and other missions. At the time of D-Day, the Japanese still had a powerful fleet, and it attacked US landings about two weeks after the Normandy invasion. Moreover, with the island-hopping strategy, Pacific invasions were often not within support range of any Allied airfield.
Moreover, Normandy would have been a difficult landing to support with carriers. Carriers need to have a lot of wind blowing down the deck for aircraft to take off or land, which means that they generally need a large clear maneuvering area. The English Channel, near Normandy, was too small for effective operations and crowded with landing craft. The carriers would have had to stay either in the North Sea, which was still dangerous, or the Atlantic, and the ground air bases would have been closer than the carriers.
After the Allied breakout, the air bases in England were still fairly close to the action, closer than carriers could have operated, and the Allies set up lots of air bases in France and other liberated areas. The Allied offensive didn't get anywhere near the open areas of the North Sea, where carriers could usefully operate, until about a month before the end of the war.