Civil Division - History

Civil Division - History


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History

In 1993, the Supreme Court, Civil Branch, NY County, under the leadership of then-Administrative Judge Stanley S. Ostrau, established four Commercial Parts on an experimental basis. The aim was to test whether it would be possible, by concentrating commercial litigation in those Parts, to improve the efficiency with which such matters were addressed by the court and, at the same time, to enhance the quality of judicial treatment of those cases. The court’s experience with the Commercial Parts was positive and the reaction of commercial practitioners to the Parts was very favorable.

In January 1995, a task force of the Commercial and Federal Litigation Section of the New York State Bar Association recommended expansion of the Commercial Parts. Specifically, the Section proposed establishing a Commercial Division of the Supreme Court in those areas of the State in which there are significant amounts of commercial litigation.

Shortly thereafter, then-Chief Judge Judith S. Kaye created the Commercial Courts Task Force, headed by Hon. E. Leo Milonas and Robert L. Haig, Esq., to examine the Section’s report and make recommendations. The Task Force proposed that a Commercial Division be established in appropriate jurisdictions and also made recommendations regarding case management, technology and other issues to promote the efficient resolution of commercial cases. The Chief Judge thereafter established the Commercial Division on a statewide basis.

In November 1995, the Commercial Division opened in Monroe County (Rochester) and in New York County. Over the course of the ensuing years, the Division has steadily expanded in response to requests of the commercial Bar and the Office of Court Administration’s analysis of case data and statistics. As of the present, two decades after the establishment of the Commercial Parts, there are 28 Commercial Division justices statewide and the Commercial Division spans ten different jurisdictions: Albany, Kings, Nassau, New York, Onondaga, Queens, Suffolk and Westchester Counties as well as the entire Seventh and Eighth Judicial Districts.

The Commercial Division serves as a forum for resolution of complicated commercial disputes. Successful resolution of these disputes requires particular expertise across the broad and complex expanse of commercial law. Because disclosure in commercial cases can be complicated, protracted and expensive, particularly in light of electronic discovery, the Division makes use of vigorous and efficient case management. The court sets deadlines and enforces them, managing discovery as needed to protect the rights of the parties to fair disclosure while minimizing expense and delay. Motion practice, especially in the form of motions to dismiss or for summary judgment, is common in commercial cases. The caseload of the Division is thus very demanding, requiring of the court scholarship in commercial law, experience in the management of complex cases, and a wealth of energy.

The Commercial Division has actively sought to employ advanced technology to assist in handling its caseload effectively. The Commercial Division, for instance, contributed to the development of and pioneered implementation of case management software, now widely used in New York State. New York County’s Commercial Division has long used the Courtroom for the New Millennium, which is dedicated to the memory of former Commercial Division Justice Lewis R. Friedman, and which is equipped and wired with advanced technology, to assist in commercial trials.

The Commercial Division has been a leading force in electronic filing of court documents in New York State. Electronic filing began in commercial cases in the Commercial Division in New York County and the Division has been very active in the expansion of e-filing since then. All newly-filed Commercial Division cases in Erie, Kings, Nassau, New York, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties, for instance, are subject to electronic filing pursuant to the New York State Courts Electronic Filing System (“NYSCEF”). This expansion of e-filing has been recommended by many Bar groups over recent years, such as, in 2007, the New York State Bar Association, the New York County Lawyers’ Association, and the Association of the Bar of the City of New York.

The Commercial Division also utilized an Alternative Dispute Resolution Program ("ADR") first established in New York County in early 1996. Justices may send matters to ADR at any time upon an order of referral. Detailed rules and protocols and rosters of seasoned ADR neutrals have been established in many jurisdictions around the State.

As with the Commercial Parts, the Bar has responded very favorably to the work of the Division, as have leading representatives of the business community. For example, the Commercial and Federal Litigation Section referred to the Division as "a case study in successful judicial administration." The Business Council of New York State applauded the work of the Division, describing the court in 2000 as "the envy of businesses in other states." The American Corporate Counsel Association has expressed its appreciation and support for the Division and urged other states to follow New York’s lead. The American Bar Association’s Business Law Section described the Division in 2000 as "a model of a specialized court devoted to the resolution of business disputes." The 87th Annual Dinner of the New York County Lawyers' Association in December 2001 saluted the Division and honored the Division Justices.

In 2006, the Commercial and Federal Litigation Section awarded its prestigious Stanley H. Fuld Award to the entire Commercial Division at its Annual Meeting.

In January 2006, the Commercial Division adopted Statewide Standards for Assignment of Cases and Rules of Practice. These Standards provide clarity as to which cases are heard in the Commercial Division and which are not and established uniform practices and procedures for cases once they are within the Commercial Division.

As the foregoing indicates, the Commercial Division has benefitted from extensive communications with the commercial Bar and Bar associations across the State over the years. In 2006, this process of exchange of ideas saw the completion of an important step with the release of a report by the Commercial Division Focus Group Project. The Office of Court Administration structured the Focus Groups to promote candid dialogue among judges, lawyers and clients to generate new ideas, identify potential areas of improvement and assess application of “best practices” that have evolved in the Commercial Division to the court system as a whole. Focus Group sessions spanned the State, bringing together lawyers, former and current judges and in-house counsel of major corporations. The Report to the Chief Judge on the Commercial Division Focus Groups (July 2006), summarized the work and conclusions of the Focus Groups. The Report contained two types of findings: a list of “good ideas” that had developed within the Commercial Division that could be considered for exportation and use elsewhere within the court system and suggestions for improvements to the Commercial Division itself.

In his State of the Judiciary Address in 2012, Chief Judge Jonathan Lippman announced the creation of the Chief Judge’s Task Force on Commercial Litigation in the 21st Century. The Task Force, co-chaired by former Chief Judge Kaye and distinguished commercial practitioner Martin Lipton, was charged with, in the Chief Judge’s words, taking “a fresh look at ways to enhance our stellar Commercial Division.” “It is time,” the Chief Judge said, “to set a new vision for how we in the New York State court system might better serve the needs of the business community and our state’s economy.”

In June 2012, the Task Force issued its Report and Recommendations to the Chief Judge of the State of New York. In the Report, the Task Force offered numerous suggestions in six areas for the improvement of the Commercial Division and the processing of commercial litigation in New York State in the coming years.

In 2013, Chief Judge Lippman, following one of the recommendations of the Task Force, established a permanent Commercial Division Advisory Council to advise him on all matters pertaining to the Commercial Division. The Council is composed of distinguished commercial practitioners and Judges from around the state and is chaired by Robert L. Haig, Esq.

The Task Force and the Advisory Council recommended that the monetary threshold of the Division in New York County be increased from $150,000 to $500,000. By order of the Chief Administrative Judge, with the advice and consent of the Administrative Board, this recommendation was implemented effective February 17, 2014.

At present, several other recommendations have been published for public comment or are pending, including a proposal to institute in the Commercial Division in New York County a pilot program of mandatory mediation for certain newly-filed cases.

Out of the consultative and advisory experience just described there recently emerged developments regarding international arbitration proceedings. The Chief Administrative Judge of the State of New York issued an Administrative Order (AO 224/13) directing that all international commercial arbitration matters as defined therein proceeding before the New York County Commercial Division be assigned to Commercial Division Part 53 (Hon. Charles E. Ramos). The Administrative Judge for Civil Matters of the First Judicial District, Hon. Sherry Klein Heitler, thereafter issued an Administrative Order implementing this directive. These orders are posted on the Commercial Division website.


Rebuilding America after the Civil War: did reconstruction sow more division?

The civil war determined, once and for all, that America was one nation, indivisible. But it did not determine what kind of a nation it would be, says Heather Cox Richardson. Somehow, Americans had to construct a new country out of the bitterly divided states.

This competition is now closed

Published: June 16, 2020 at 10:00 am

Two new factors would determine the shape of postwar America. First, the war had revolutionised the idea of American citizenship. Before the Civil War, Americans had looked to educated, propertied white men to govern. But in the south, those were the very men who had set out to destroy the Union. Meanwhile, people excluded from government had rallied around it. Uneducated and impoverished African-Americans had thrown themselves behind the Union: black soldiers died at a rate 40 per cent higher than white troops. Women had spent the war years tending fields, buying bonds, giving sons to the war and supporting the president. New immigrants had rushed to the Union, struggling on battlefields and in wheatfields to produce cash crops that brought gold to the treasury. Now, African-Americans, women and immigrants wanted their say.

Second, the issue of which voices would be welcome in postwar government had huge importance because during the war Congress had changed the country’s financial system. To meet the needs of the treasury, Congress had introduced a new measure: national taxes. For the first time in American history, voting would have a direct impact on how other people’s money was spent. These two factors would determine the course of reconstruction.

Timeline: Key events in creating a new country after the civil war

  • 1865:Black Codes Southern legislature tries to force freed people into quasi-slavery
  • 1866: Memphis and New Orleans Riots Bloody race riots convince northerners to abandon Johnson’s postwar reconstruction policies
  • 1867: The Military Reconstruction Act Congress divides ten southern states into five military districts, overseen by army officers
  • 1868: 14th Amendment Congressmen base reconstruction on changing the Constitution to establish equal rights for all men
  • 1870: 15th Amendment After the Georgia legislature expels its black members, Congress passes the 15th Amendment, guaranteeing a citizen’s right to vote cannot be restricted by race
  • 1875: Minor versus Happersett The Supreme Court decides that citizenship does not convey the right to vote, effectively denying the vote to women
  • 1876: Election White Democrats retake control of the South
  • 1890 (and beyond): Suffrage Restrictions States across the Union restrict suffrage on grounds other than race, but which nevertheless effectively disenfranchise most blacks

Recreating the status quo

Congress adjourned in early March 1865 and would not reconvene until early December. After Lincoln’s death in April, vice president Andrew Johnson became US president and had nine months without oversight to “restore” the nation. A border state Democrat, Johnson wanted to recreate the antebellum status quo, without slavery. Democrats would, he believed, rally to him and retake the country, running it much as they had before the civil war. There would be no new voices and, once he restored the Union and gutted the government’s wartime apparatus, no national taxes.

Listen: Sarah Churchwell and Adam IP Smith explore the origins of America First and the American Dream

He began his term by pardoning all but about 1,500 former Confederates. To gain readmission to the Union, he demanded only that southern legislatures abolish slavery, nullify ordinances of secession and repudiate the Confederate debt (which meant southern states could not repay citizens who had bought state bonds to finance the war effort).

Southern legislatures did as he asked. Then they reflected the spirit of Johnson’s plan by circumscribing the lives of freed people. ‘Black Codes’ bound black workers to white employers, restricted their movements, and kept African-Americans from owning property or testifying in court. Southerners then re-elected to Congress a raft of ex-Confederates, including Alexander Stephens, the vice president of the Confederacy. Under Johnson’s policies, the postwar south looked much like the antebellum south.

In December 1865, Johnson greeted the new Congress with the cheery news that reconstruction was over. All Congress now had to do was seat the newly elected southern representatives, disband the military and slash the federal budget back to antebellum levels. With the exception of slavery, America would be just as it was before the war.

Mississippi frog-pond

Republican congressmen, however, utterly rejected Johnson’s version of reconstruction. Northern soldiers had died in bloody piles at Antietam, rotted from infections in dirty hospitals and starved at Andersonville, while their kinfolk sweated in fields and factories to support the war. Finally victorious, northerners had watched, horrified, as ex-Confederates retook control of the south and virtually re-enslaved the black southerners who had been loyal to the Union.

The Chicago Tribune snarled in December 1865: “The men of the North will convert the State of Mississippi into a frog-pond before they will allow [the Black Codes] to disgrace one foot of soil in which the bones of our soldiers sleep and over which the flag of freedom waves.”

Congressional Republicans refused to seat southern representatives, then granted black southerners the right to own property and to bring suits and testify in court. They also established federal courts in the south to give ex-slaves access to legal protection.

Johnson vetoed these laws, arguing both that they gave black men more legal rights than white men and that the officials necessary to protect black rights would waste tax dollars. Then he announced Congress was operating illegally because it was passing laws without southern representatives. It could not legislate, he said, until it restored the south to the Union. Congress promptly repassed its laws over his veto.

The battle lines were drawn. On the one hand, Republicans defended the rights of all loyal Americans to equal protection under the laws. On the other, Democrats complained that Republicans were using tax dollars to help black Americans at the expense of hardworking white men.

Republicans were not necessarily keen advocates of black voting, but Johnson’s pardon of most white southern Democrats made them turn to black suffrage to keep the government out of the hands of ex-Confederates. Congressmen’s solution to the problem of reintegrating the southern states to the Union was the Fourteenth Amendment. This constitutional amendment expanded citizenship to African-American men as well as the children of all immigrants. It also tried to nudge the south toward black suffrage by threatening to reduce a state’s congressional representation if it denied the vote to a significant number of its men. Congress called for southern states to ratify the amendment before readmission to the Union.

Continued rebellion

In summer 1866, Johnson railed against congressmen as “traitors… trying to break up the Government”. Convinced Democrats would sweep the 1866 midterm elections and that a new Democratic Congress would endorse his own policies, he urged southern whites to ignore Republicans’ reconstruction plan.

In Memphis and New Orleans, white southerners rioted, killing or wounding more than 100 African-Americans and destroying hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of property. Aghast at the South’s continuing rebellion, northerners repudiated Johnson and gave Republicans a two-thirds majority in Congress.

Since southern whites had ignored the Fourteenth Amendment, congressmen passed the landmark Military Reconstruction Act in March 1867. This law divided the ten unreconstructed southern states into five military districts and required southern states to rewrite their constitutions. In a revolutionary change to American government, it permitted black men to vote for the delegates to those constitutional conventions. When southern whites opted for military occupation rather than registering black voters, Congress put the military in charge of the process.

Newly registered southern voters elected officials who wrote new state constitutions establishing black suffrage. Desperate to prevent the ratification of those constitutions, southern Democrats donned sheets designed to look like the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers, and terrorised Republican voters before the 1868 election. In the months before voters went to the polls, these Ku Klux Klan members murdered about a thousand people.

Their campaign of terror failed. Voters accepted the new constitutions and the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1868, Congress readmitted southern states to the Union. Briefly, it seemed, a reconstructed government would include all loyal men.

But reconstruction was not over. After readmission, the Georgia legislature expelled its black legislators. Congress promptly refused to seat the state’s representatives, thus remanding Georgia to military rule. Then it passed the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, ensuring a citizen’s right to vote could not be restricted by race, and required Georgia to ratify the amendment. It did so and on 15 July 1870 Congress readmitted Georgia to the Union, formally ending reconstruction.

Shutting out women

But the reconstruction of a new nation was still not over. White women refused to give up their seat at the national table when black men had taken theirs. “The civil war came to an end, leaving the slave not only emancipated, but endowed with the full dignity of citizenship,” Boston reformer Julia Ward Howe recalled. “The women of the North had greatly helped to open the door which admitted him to freedom and its safeguard, the ballot. Was this door to be shut in their face?”

In 1869, after being excluded from the Fourteenth Amendment, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony organised the National Woman Suffrage Association, demanding a variety of reforms. Months later, Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe organised the American Woman Suffrage Association, seeking only the vote in the belief that from suffrage all other women’s rights would flow. Excluded the following year from the Fifteenth Amendment, women staged a ‘vote in’ during the presidential election of 1872 to claim their citizenship under the Fourteenth Amendment. When the registrar turned a suffragist away from the polls, her challenge began to work its way to the Supreme Court.

By 1872, though, northerners had begun to retreat from the idea that every American should have a say in the postwar nation. The rise of organised labour brought home southern Democrats’ complaints that an activist government would tax the wealthy to benefit poor workers. In 1866, America’s first National Labour Union met to call for an eight-hour working day, higher wages and better working conditions.

Wealthy northerners began to worry that southerners were right: the voice of workers in government would lead to a redistribution of wealth through taxation or pro-labour legislation. With the eruption of the Paris Commune in spring 1871, they were sure of it.

Pointing to the “recent terrible Communistic outbreak in Paris,” one reformer wrote: “In the judgment of one who has been familiar with our ‘dangerous classes’ for 20 years, there are just the same explosive social elements beneath the surface of New York as of Paris.”

The coincidence of black voting and rising numbers of immigrant workers convinced wealthy Americans that the expansion of the body politic invited communism. They worried that black field workers and urban labourers would elect officials who would tax hardworking Americans to provide services – or shorter hours, or better conditions – for the less affluent voters. ‘Socialism,’ southerners argued, had taken root in the south, where it was preventing the economy from rebounding from the war. Northerners looked at the crippled southern economy and listened. They worried that redistributive policies would destroy the nation by undercutting a man’s ability to accumulate wealth and, thus, his desire to work.

Fear of an underclass

In the 1870s, a fight to control the Republican party fed this growing fear of a dangerous underclass.

Elected in 1868, President Ulysses S Grant tried to wrest political power from the senior Republicans who had bested Johnson. They fought back, attacking Grant by charging that his southern governments were deliberately redistributing wealth from hardworking white southerners to lazy ex-slaves in order to garner votes.

Their vitriol was a ploy, but those powerful Republicans controlled most of the nation’s newspapers. They insisted federal support for widespread suffrage meant socialism. That accusation spread across the nation and rooted deep in the American psyche.

Ten years after the end of the civil war, the national mood had shifted. No longer were Americans willing to insist that everyone should have a say in the government. In 1875, the Supreme Court decided the suffragist case from 1872. Women were citizens, the court said in the case Minor versus Happersett, but citizenship did not convey a right to vote.

This bombshell blessed suffrage restriction. In 1876, white southerners openly terrorised black voters while northerners railed against politically active urban immigrants. Democrats won the popular vote in the hotly contested presidential election of that year, but Republican Rutherford B Hayes won the Electoral College in part by promising that the government would no longer protect black voting.

By 1880, the south was solidly Democratic it would remain so for almost 100 years. In the north and west, too, states began to rewrite their constitutions, once again limiting the right to vote to propertied white men.

In the end, the postwar years did reconstruct a new nation, but not the inclusive world that Republicans had envisioned in 1865. Instead, the peculiar mix of racism, citizenship and novel taxation in the postwar years meant that reconstruction created a new mindset in American people: government activism to protect equal rights was socialism, and it would destroy America.

Heather Cox Richardson is professor of history at Boston College and author of West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War (YUP, 2007)

This article first appeared in our special edition The American Civil War Story, first published in 2013.


Civil Division

The General Sessions Civil Court consists of six (6) civil judges which preside in approximately 65,000 new cases annually.

The General Sessions Court Clerk&rsquos Office is responsible for the record keeping for the six civil divisions and nine criminal divisions in Shelby County, Tennessee.

Providing quality, efficient, and courteous service.

General Sessions&rsquo Hickory Ridge satellite location is closed. If you need to make a payment you are encourage to make your payment online or by telephone. If you have inquiries call 222-3400 for Civil matters or call (901) 222-3500 for Criminal Division matters.

Otherwise, you are welcome to visit our Mullins Station Satellite location.

Online access to General Sessions scanned documents is now available. For more information please visit under Civil Division, Online Garnishment answer form Tab.

The Tennessee Supreme Court&rsquos Order Modifying and Partially Lifting Suspension of In-Person Court Proceedings filed February 12, 2021, lifts the suspension of all non-jury in-person court proceedings in all state and local courts in Tennessee, including but not limited to municipal, juvenile, general sessions, trial, and appellate courts on Monday, March 15, 2021.

The General Sessions Civil Court Judges obtained permission from the General Counsel of the Tennessee Supreme Court for an extension to re-open for in-person court proceedings on March 22, 2021 to ensure timely notices for all parties having cases in General Sessions Civil Court.

By Order of the Tennessee Supreme Court, dated 01/15/2021, the Court has extended the suspension of in-person court proceedings through March 31, 2021. writs can be processed on cases where a judgment has been rendered but no declaration has been filed, EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY. As was previously announced, General Sessions Civil should also issue garnishments and levies. Stays may be given on Motions to Set Payments with hearing dates set in April. Releases may be given on Motions to Quash until hearing date, in April or as soon as the courts resume in-person proceedings. (See orders below.)&rdquo

By Order of the Tennessee Supreme Court, dated 01/15/2021, the Court has extended the suspension of in-person court proceedings through March 31, 2021. (Order attached below).

General Sessions Court Clerk Offices Will be Closed on Friday, June 18th, 2021 in Observance of Juneteenth.


Civil Division - History

The 16th Infantry Regiment has a very rich history. Few, if any, other regiments in the United States Army can match the number and variety of campaigns in which this regiment’s Soldiers have fought and served or the number of honors they have won. The regiment has fought in 20 different countries and its Soldiers have served peacefully in many others. Its leaders are the men who have led these great Soldiers through those events and helped make the larger history of the U.S. Army the amazing story that it is. Within these pages you will find many of the stories, images, and details that compose that history.

Major Delancey Floyd-Jones led the regiment through its battles from Gaines Mill to Gettysburg.

During the spring and summer of 1864, the regiment participated in General Ulysses S. Grant’s Overland Campaign and fought at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Jericho Mills, Cold Harbor, and finally in the Siege of Petersburg. In November the regiment was once again sent to New York for a short period, then after short stints at Lafayette Barracks in Baltimore and Camp Parole at Annapolis in Maryland, it was returned to the Army of the Potomac to perform duties as part of the Army of the Potomac’s Provost Guard in February 1865. By the spring of 1865, only a few of those soldiers sworn in at Fort Independence in 1861 were still present to participate in the regiment’s last wartime task—to help disarm General Robert E. Lee’s weary Confederates at Appomattox that April. During its Civil War actions, the regiment earned 12 campaign streamers and 3 of the regiment’s members, Captain Henry C. Wood, Forst Lieutenant John H. Patterson and Captain James M. Cutts, earned the regiment’s first Medals of Honor.

16th Infantry Regimental Band at Fort Riley, Kansas, circa 1877.

The 16th Infantry remained in the South at various locations performing Reconstruction duties until 1877 when it was called farther west to participate in various Indian campaigns. Westward expansion continued to cause friction and conflict with the Indians, so the regiment was initially sent to posts in Kansas and Oklahoma. The headquarters was established for the first time at Fort Riley with which the regiment was to later establish a long-term association. During this period several companies served in the campaigns against the Ute and Cheyenne Indians and but experienced little actual combat. The regiment then moved down to Texas in 1880. While in the Lone Star State, soldiers of the 16th Infantry served in the campaigns against Victorio’s Apaches in New Mexico and guarded various posts and patrol stations throughout west Texas. In 1886, Company K provided the guards to escort Geronimo into captivity at Fort Pickens, Florida. At Pine Ridge in 1890-91, the regiment participated in the “Wounded Knee” campaign and helped to bring to an end the Indian wars in the American West. Finally, the US Army’s long and arduous task of keeping open the westward roads to America’s expansion across the continent was complete. The 16th Infantry’s participation in the Indian wars of the west garnered the regiment another 3 campaign streamers.

After brief stays at Camp Wheeler, Alabama, Fort Crook, Nebraska, and Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, the 16th Infantry then received orders to go to the Philippines to help put down the ongoing insurrection there. The regiment arrived in Manila on 26 June 1899 and was initially assigned the duty of guarding the Manila and Dagupan Rail Road. Over the next 6 months, troops of the regiment participated in numerous small skirmishes somewhat reminiscent of those in which it would later engage in Vietnam. In December 1899, the regimental headquarters and several companies participated in a small campaign designed to retake the city of San Ildefonso back from a large insurgent force. Soon after this excursion, the regiment was redeployed to Nueva Viscaya Province to pacify and administer the area. The singular incident of note during that effort was the repulse of a force of over 300 insurgents on 14 September 1900 at Carig by a detachment consisting of 24 men from L and D Companies commanded by Sergeant Henry F. Schroeder. Schroeder was later awarded the regiment’s fourth Medal of Honor for that feat. By the fall of 1900, the regiment had administered the province so well that it was considered the most orderly area on Luzon.

The 16th Infantry returned to the United States at San Francisco on 8 July 1901 and from there was posted, less the 1st Battalion, to Fort McPherson, Georgia. The 1st Battalion was concurrently assigned station at Fort Slocum, New York, to provide support to the recruit training operations there. After a few years of routine garrison duty, the regiment was once again ordered to the Philippines in the spring of 1905. Stationed predominantly at Fort McKinley near Manila, this tour in the islands was much calmer than the previous. The only incident of note was a small expedition to Leyte Island to put down a minor uprising of the Pulajane tribesmen there. On return to Fort McKinley, the regiment discovered that the Philippine Division now had a new commander, Brigadier General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing. This brief association with the general was the start of an on again-off again relationship that would continue through World War I.

The 16th Infantry once again arrived home to America at San Francisco on 16 September 1907. This time it was split between Fort Crook, where most of the regiment was stationed, and Fort Logan H. Root, Arkansas, to which the 1st Battalion was posted. The command remained at these posts conducting routine garrison duty for the next 3 and a half years. The only noteworthy incident during this period was the deployment of 4 companies sent to help quell disturbances by the White River Utes at the Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota.

The men of the 16th Infantry trudge into the depths of central Mexico, 1916.

In the fall of 1909, the regiment received orders once again for another overseas move, this time to Alaska. Arriving in July 1910, the regiment was widely distributed in little posts across the huge Alaskan Territory. In July 1912, the 16th Infantry arrived back home once again at San Francisco, but this time it remained there for duty at the Presidio, and assigned to the 8th Brigade. Less than 2 years later, the brigade received a new commanding general who was none other than “Black Jack” Pershing. Within two months, Pershing was ordered by the War Department to move his brigade to the Mexican Border to help secure it from depredations by Mexican bandits and paramilitary forces commanded by Francisco “Pancho” Villa. On arrival in April 1914, the regiment was posted to Camp Cotton in the city of El Paso. For the next two years, in addition to the normal garrison duties, the troops conducted foot patrols along the dusty Mexican border, showing the flag, and attempting to keep the area under some semblance of control. In January 1916, disturbances by Mexican citizens, ostensibly fomented by Villa organizers, caused Pershing to deploy the regiment into the city to restore calm and order. Two months later, Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico, which, in turn, caused President Woodrow Wilson to order Pershing to take an expedition into Mexico to find and punish the Mexican bandit.

Assembling a largely cavalry force, Pershing selected two infantry formations to accompany the expedition, the 16th and 6th Infantry Regiments. The long march into the interior of Mexico was hot and dusty. After several weeks of movement between Colonia Dublan and El Valle, the 16th Infantry finally settled in the latter place in June. There the soldiers built mud brick huts for quarters and began to return to what amounted to a garrison routine, except for the occasional patrols into the nearby mountains and valleys to hunt for rumored Villistas. Though the cavalry had several clashes with Villista and Federali forces, the infantry maintaining a dull and boring existence for the next 8 months. In February 1917, Wilson recalled Pershing’s expedition from Mexico.

During the period between 1898 and 1917, the 16th Infantry participated in three small conflicts in foreign lands. In each, the regiment ably performed all tasks and missions with its usual efficiency. For its work in these conflicts the regiment added another 3 campaign streamers to its colors. It would soon have the chance to add more. The war in Europe was heating up and within two more months, America would be at war again, this time with Germany.

B Company macrhes to Easter services on Governors Island circa 1936.

Two years later, the division was transferred once again, but this time, the brigades, regiments, and smaller units were sent to garrison small posts all over the northeastern US. The 16th Infantry was posted to Fort Jay, New York, on Governors Island in the middle of New York harbor. The regiment would remain there until 1941, during which time it became known as, “New York’s Own” and adopted as its regimental song, “The Sidewalks of New York.” During this period the regiment engaged in the normal peacetime training routine of the 1920s and 30s which consisted of troop schools and individual, squad, and platoon training in the winter and spring, followed by the training of the Organized Reserve, R.O.T.C., and C.M.T.C. during the summer at Camp Dix. The fall was reserved mainly for maneuver and marksmanship training which were also usually held at Camp Dix. The regiment, along with the rest of the 1st Division, also participated in the First Army maneuvers of 1935 and 1939. After the latter maneuver, the entire division was sent to Fort Benning, Georgia, to participate in a corps-level maneuver experiment designed to improve the employment of the new “triangular” division structure. The regiment returned to Fort Jay that summer in time to participate in the next First Army maneuver in upstate New York in September 1940. The following January, the 1st Division was assembled at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, where it was brought to full war strength and conducted the training requirements of the US Army’s Protective Mobilization Plan. The regiment, along with the rest of the Big Red One, also conducted a number of amphibious training exercises which provided an indicator of how the division was to be used in any impending conflict.

The 2nd Battalion parades through Paris, 4 July 1917. USASC

Prior to being committed to battle, the 16th Infantry Regiment, began training in July 1917 in the Gondrecourt area with the French 47th Division, Chasseaurs d’Alpines, nicknamed the “Blue Devils.” Throughout the summer and fall the training went apace and soon it was time for exposure to actual combat. On 3 November 1917, while occupying a section of trenches near Bathlémont, the 16th Infantry became the first U.S. regiment to fight and suffer casualties in the trenches during World War I when it repelled a German night raid. The French government later erected a monument at Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, honoring the first three 16th Infantry Regiment soldiers killed during the fight with the inscription: “Here lie the first soldiers of the Great American Republic fallen on French soil for Justice and Liberty.”

In the months that followed, the 16th Infantry would sustain even more casualties in defensive battles in eastern France at Ansauville, Cantigny, and Coullemelle. The regiment’s first major attack was made during the bloody three-day drive near Soissons in July 1918. Along with the rest of the Big Red One, it relentlessly attacked until the German rail line that supplied their front line troops was severed forcing a major withdrawal of the enemy’s forces. The regiment also participated in the US First Army’s huge offensive to reduce the St. Mihiel salient in September. Arguably the regiment’s most gallant action was the grueling drive that liberated the little village of Fléville in the Argonne forest region on 4 October 1918. This feat was significant in that the 16th Infantry was the only regiment in the entire First U.S. Army to take its main objective on the first day of the Meuse-Argonne Campaign. To this day that action is celebrated annually during the 16th Infantry Regiment’s Organization Day. The 16th Infantry also participated in the 1st Division’s final drive of the war when the division attacked to seize the city of Sedan. Though the division was stopped short of that objective by international politics, the verve and vigor of that drive demonstrated the regiment lived up to the division’s new motto, “No mission too difficult, no sacrifice too great—Duty First!”

During the Great War, the 16th Infantry suffered its greatest number of wartime casualties to date, all in a single year of combat. It sustained 1,037 soldiers killed in action or mortally wounded, and 3,389 wounded. In addition to the 7 campaign streamers earned by the regiment and the 2 Croix de Guerre granted by the French government, its soldiers were awarded at least 97 Distinguished Service Crosses, and thousands were cited for “gallantry in action” in General Orders which was the equivalent of today’s Silver Star. In recognition of the regiment’s service in France, Brigadier General Frank Parker paid the following tribute:

There is to my thinking, nothing finer in this world than the self-effacing role of the true private soldier of infantry, and nowhere in this war has the private soldier of infantry been truer to his Country’s expectations of him than in the Sixteenth Infantry. All Honor, then, to these men, and to those gallant officers and non-commissioned officers, who have taught, inspired and led these private Great Hearts in the van of the American Expeditionary Forces.

The 16th Infantry, along with the rest of the 1st Division, marched into the Coblenz Bridgehead in late 1918 to perform occupation duty there for the next 9 months. In August 1919, the division received orders to come home and boarded ships at Brest, France, later that month.

Next came Sicily. Shortly before 0100 hours on 10 July 1943, the first wave of the 16th Infantry boarded landing craft for the assault on that island. After achieving a relatively bloodless hold on the beachhead in the darkness, the regiment pushed into the hills beyond. There the regiment was soon hit hard with an armored counterattack by German tanks. Despite numerous enemy tanks and reinforcements, the 16th Infantry desperately held on by receiving assistance from the heavy guns of the U.S. Navy and the timely arrival of the regiment’s Cannon Company. By 14 July 1943, the regiment had moved through Pictroperzia, Enna, and Villarosa. Fighting against snipers and well-fortified positions, the regiment moved forward by a series of flanking movements and by 29 July had taken the high ground west of the Cerami River. In early August, the regiment reached the town of Troina in eastern Sicily. At Troina the regiment experienced some of the most bitter fighting it would see during the war. After a four-day brawl with the battle-hardened troops of the 15th Panzer Grenadier Division, the men of the 16th Infantry finally captured the town and soon after the Sicily campaign ended.

Subsequently, the regiment sailed to Liverpool, England, and from there entrained on 16 October 1943 for Dorchester, to carry out seven months of grueling training in preparation for the Allied invasion of Europe. On 1 June 1944, the men of the 16th Infantry departed their D-Camps in southwestern England and embarked on amphibious assault ships at the port of Weymouth. Units of the 16th Infantry boarded the USS Samuel Chase, the USS Henrico, and the HMS Empire Anvil, preparatory to their third—and most important—amphibious assault mission. Late on the afternoon of 5 June 1944, the troop-laden ships slipped out of Weymouth harbor and headed for the beaches of Normandy.

Succinctly stated, the 16th Infantry’s mission on D-Day was “To assault Omaha Beach and reduce the beach defenses in its zone of action, proceed with all possible speed to the D-Day Phase Line, and seize and secure it two hours before dark on D-Day.” The long awaited assault on “Fortress Europe” began in the early hours of 6 June 1944 as the 16th Infantry Regiment moved toward Omaha Beach. About 600 yards offshore, the regiment’s landing craft began to encounter intense antitank and small arms fire. As the lead elements, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions, approached the beach, it became readily apparent that many of the enemy’s strong points had not been eliminated by the pre-invasion bombardment. Many landing craft, and their occupants, were hit as they plowed through the heavy seas toward shore. As landing craft dropped their ramps, men were killed and wounded as they attempted to get out of the boats. Others were hit as they struggled through the surf or tried to run across the sand weighted down with water-logged equipment.

The survivors of the first wave slowly built up a firing line along the low pile of shale. As more units arrived, they found the now disorganized lead troops pinned down and congested. Still, here and there men attempted to move forward. Many were shot down, but others made it in close to the base of the bluff where they found the area mined and criss-crossed with concertina wire. In a few places, small organized bodies of troops made efforts to get through the enemy defenses. Eventually, an assault section of E Company under First Lieutenant John Spalding and Staff Sergeant Philip Streczyk managed to cross a minefield, breach the enemy wire, and struggle their way to the bluff. Colonel George Taylor, the regimental commander, noting the small breakthrough stood to his feet and yelled at his troops, “The only men who remain on this beach are the dead and those who are about to die! Let’s get moving!” Soon other troops began making their way up the bluffs along Spaulding’s route while other gaps were blown through the wire and mines. By vicious fighting, some hand-to-hand, other sections, platoons, and eventually companies made it to the top and began pushing toward Colleville-Sur-Mer.

By noon of that bloody day, the 16th Infantry had broken through the beach defenses and established a foothold that allowed follow-on units to land and move through. The evening of D-Day plus 1 found all of the units of the regiment ashore, many of them well inland by that time, but some were combat ineffective due to casualties. A few weeks later, at an awards ceremony on 2 July 1944, Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Gerow came to praise the troops of the regiment for their heroic efforts and to present the Distinguished Service Cross to a number of the regiment’s officers and men. At the ceremony, Eisenhower told the members of the regiment:

I’m not going to make a long speech, but this simple little ceremony gives me an opportunity to come over here, and through you, say thanks. You are the finest regiment in our army. I know your record from the day you landed in North Africa, and through Sicily. I am beginning to think that your Regiment is a sort of Praetorian Guard, which goes along with me and gives me luck.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower
2 July 1944

After D-Day, the 16th Infantry became the division reserve, and after a brief rest, continued moving inland. In late July, the regiment was still in division reserve when it was ordered to be prepared to assist in a breakout through the German line near St. Lo. After the saturation bombing of the Panzer Lehr Division on 25 July, the Big Red One closely followed the 9th Infantry Division in the breakout attempt. Two days later the 16th Infantry was launched on an attack through a break in the lines near Marigny and drove on the city of Coutance where it established battle positions on 29 July. By this time, the Germans were in headlong retreat and attempting to establish a new line well to the east. Their efforts would fail and the German Seventh Army would be largely destroyed as it attempted to escape via the Falaise Gap. Meanwhile, in an effort to keep up with the retreating Germans, the men of the 16th Infantry piled on trucks, tanks, and anything else they could find to move eastward as quickly as possible. After motoring south past Paris, the regiment caught up with the enemy again near Mons, Belgium, where it helped the 1st Infantry Division destroyed six German divisions in August and early September.

From Mons, the regiment pushed on with the Big Red One toward Aachen, Germany, just across the German frontier. For the next three months, the men of the 16th Infantry would experience some of the most grueling fighting of the war in the infamous Hürtgen Forest near Aachen, Stolberg, and Hamich, Germany. After sustaining very heavy casualties from enemy artillery fire and the cold dreary weather, the entire division was sent to a rest camp on 12 December 1944. The stay was short, because Hitler launched Operation Wacht am Rhein four days later and the Battle of the Bulge was on. The division was sent to bolster the northern shoulder of the bulge near Camp Elsenborn. The regiment was ordered to positions near Waywertz. For the next month, the men of the 16th Infantry held defensive positions there, conducted heavy patrolling toward the German positions near Faymonville, and engaged in a number of firefights with troops of the 1st SS Panzer and 3rd Fallshirmjaeger Divisions. All of this was conducted in heavy snows during one of the coldest European winters on record.

On 15 January 1945, the Big Red One launched its part of the Allied counteroffensive to reduce the Bulge. Over the next seven weeks, the regiment conducted numerous operations in western Germany culminating in the capture of Bonn on 8 March 1945. From there the Big Red One moved north to the Harz Mountains to eliminate a German force cut off there by the rapid advance of the First and Ninth US Armies. For a week the regiment conducted several attacks against die-hard enemy troops. On 22 April, the Big Red One finished clearing the Harz Mountains and soon received orders to once again head south. This time, the division was reassigned to the Third Army for its drive into Czechoslovakia.

On 28 April, the regiment arrived near Selb, Czechoslovakia, and began advancing east. For the next ten days the 16th Infantry pushed into that country arriving near Falkenau by 7 May. At 0800 that day, a net call went out to the entire regiment to cease all forward movement. The war was over. In 443 days of combat, the 16th Infantry had sustained 1,250 officers and men killed in combat. An additional 6,278 were wounded or missing in action. Its men had earned four Medals of Honor, 87 Distinguished Service Crosses, and 1,926 Silver Stars. Additionally, the regiment, or its subordinate units, was awarded five presidential unit citations and two distinguished unit citations from the United States, two Croix de Guerre and the Medaille Militaire from the government of France, and the Belgian Fourragerre and two citations from the government of Belgium. Once again the regiment had fought with valor and courage to help win a war against the nation’s enemies. It would spend the next ten years trying to win the peace in the country of its vanquished foe.

The regiment provided guards at the Nuremburg trials in 1948.

In July 1948, the regiment was reformed in Frankfurt, Germany, by reflagging the newly formed 7892nd Infantry Regiment. The regiment was then almost immediately railed to Grafenwöhr for a series of intensive training exercises designed to bring the 16th Infantry to wartime fighting proficiency. Unlike the previous three years during which the regiment was predominantly preoccupied with what were essentially Military Police duties, the regiment was now going to focus on staving off the Red threat to central Europe. To ensure they were ready, the regiment participated with the Big Red One in numerous European Command training events such as Exercises WINTERPRIME II, HARVEST, JUNIPER, COMBINE, and FERRYBOAT. The regiment maintained its sharp edges by conducting no-notice alerts at monthly, or even more frequent, intervals. The urgency of the mission increased in July 1950 when the Korean War erupted. Fear of a second communist front caused the disbandment of the U.S. Constabulary and the reinforcement of Germany with an armored division and three more infantry divisions in 1951. The defense of the Fulda Gap became the 1st Infantry Division’s area of responsibility and also the 16th Infantry Regiment’s primary focus.

Given the initial restrictions placed on U.S. Army soldiers regarding fraternization with German citizens (especially females) and the consumption of alcohol, The leaders of the 1st Infantry Division, as well as the European Command as a whole, looked for ways to keep soldiers busy and out of trouble when not on duty. One of the primary ways was a vigorous sports program. Just after the 16th Infantry was reorganized in Germany in 1948, the regiment needed to come up with a name for its various sports teams. Its soldiers chose the name “Rangers” due to the fact that the Germans had mistakenly reported the regiment as Rangers on D-day. The regiment has maintained that tradition to this this day, with modifications to the basic moniker by the various battalions over the years.

After the 1948 Grafenwöhr training exercises, the regiment had been posted to Monteith Barracks in Furth, Germany, and surrounding communities. It was during this period that the Security Platoon (also known as the Honor Guard) provided guards for the famous Nuremburg trials. In August 1952, the 16th’s headquarters was transferred to Conn Barracks in Schweinfurt, Germany, while the most of the regiment’s subordinate units were assigned to Ledworth Barracks in that city. Schweinfurt was to be the regiment’s last station in Germany before returning home.

In 1955, the army tested a system of rotating units to Europe which became known as Operation GYROSCOPE. In June 1955, the 16th Infantry Regiment became the first Big Red One unit to return to the United States via GYROSCOPE when it was replaced by the 86th Infantry, 10th Infantry Division at Conn Barracks. The new duty station for the regiment, as well as for the rest of the Big Red One was Fort Riley, Kansas.

MG Chauncey Merrill presents the colors of the Army Reserve’s 3rd Battle Group, 16th Infantry to Colonel Irving Yeosock in May 1959.

After spending 2 years at Fort Riley, participating in a number of various exercises and conducting an iteration of Basic Combat training, in March 1959, the 1st Battle Group was transferred to Baumholder, Germany, and assigned to the 8th Infantry Division. Over the next three years, the battle group function as part of the US Army Europe’s first line of defense against potential Soviet aggression against Europe. It participated in Exercises such as WINTERSHIELD and B Company was sent to France in 1961 to act as soldiers in the movie, The Longest Day.

The next element of the regiment to actually organize under the Pentomic concept was the 3rd Battle Group, 16th Infantry. In May 1959, the battle group was activated at Worcester, Massachusetts, and assigned to the 94th Infantry Division. The unit spent the next four years conducting the normal drill and summer camps of a reserve unit. On 7 January 1963, it was reorganized and redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 16th Infantry and reassigned to the 187th Infantry Brigade (Separate). It was the first unit of the regiment to reorganize under what was known as the Reorganization of Army Divisions (ROAD) that eliminated the Pentomic structure of five battle groups. The infantry division was returned to a structure that included nine battalions that were now organized into three brigades.

The 1st Battle Group remained at Baumholder until 1 April 1963 when it was reorganized and redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry and reassigned to the Big Red One at Fort Riley. The 1st Battle Group remained at Baumholder until 1 April 1963 when it was reorganized and redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry and reassigned to the Big Red One . At Fort Riley, on 2 March 1964, the 1st Battalion was more or less split in two and the 2nd Battle Group was reactivated with the 1st Battalion’s excess personnel and concurrently reorganized and redesignated as the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry. The two active battalions of the regiment participated in supporting R.O.T.C. summer camp and Fort Riley and Exercise GOLD FIRE 1 before receiving warning orders for deployment to the Republic of Vietnam in the spring of 1965.

The 2nd Battalion in Vietnam

In 1965, the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment became the first element of the regiment to deploy to South Vietnam. The battalion arrived on the USNS Gordon on 14 July 1965 as a part of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division and debarked at Vung Tau. This event marked the first time since the Philippine Insurrection that the Rangers had set foot on Asian soil. The troops were initially sent to Long Binh north of Saigon and there the battalion immediately began building a base camp appropriately named Camp Ranger. Even while the construction was going on, the battalion began conducting platoon-size missions around the camp. In late July, a patrol from Company A was surprised by a small group of Viet Cong in a clearing southeast of the camp. In the brief firefight that ensued, one Viet Cong was killed which marked the first confirmed VC killed by soldiers of the 2nd Brigade. There would be many more in the years that followed.

In the many ensuing operations, the Rangers found themselves fighting in some of the most difficult conditions known to an infantryman. The elusive enemy had to be found before he could be destroyed and to find him the troops had to remain almost constantly in the field on search missions. “Search and Destroy” operations such as those conducted during Operations MASTIFF, BUSHMASTER, ABILENE, BIRMINGHAM, EL PASO, ATTLEBORO, CEDAR FALLS, and JUNCTION CITY usually found the battalion operating far from its base camp area throughout the III Corps Tactical Zone. The sites of these missions included many areas that were to be come well-known to many U.S. infantrymen during the Vietnam years: the impenetrable jungles of Tay Ninh near Cambodia Hobo Woods the “Iron Triangle” near Lai Khe the Michelin Rubber Plantation the Trapezoid, and War Zones C and D. In all these places, the 2nd Rangers inflicted heavy losses on enemy manpower and supplies.

After a series of patrols and search and destroy missions largely in the areas around Camp Ranger, the battalion participated in Operations BUSHMASTER I and II in and near the Michelin Rubber Plantation. The 2nd Rangers participated in these missions in November and December 1965 along with the 1st Battalion and the regiment’s old chums from World War I, the battalions of the 18th Infantry. This mission was followed by SMASH II in mid-December and MALLETs I and II in late January and early February. In late February the 2nd Rangers operated once again with their brother battalion when the Big Red One’s 2nd and 3rd Brigades deployed to the vicinity of Ben Suc to clear out a notorious VC support zone and bring the 272nd People’s Liberation Army Front (PLAF) Regiment to battle. The operation ended in late February with little damage to the 272nd Regiment, but with vast quantities of enemy supplies and equipment located and destroyed or confiscated.

A machine gun team from C Company, 2-16 Infantry sometime before the battle at Courtenay Plantation.

In March, the 2nd Battalion moved to a new home at Camp Bear Cat. Once settled into its new location, the battalion received a warning order for the next operation, ABILENE. ABILENE was a division-level effort to find and destroy several enemy formations operating due east of Saigon. The major incident during this huge mission took place near the village of Xã Cam My and the Courtenay Plantation. On the afternoon of Easter Sunday, 11 April 1966, C Company became engaged in one of the toughest battles of the war. Encountering the D800 Battalion set up in a well-fortified base camp, the 2nd Rangers fought fiercely, often hand to hand, for hours into the night. Although the company suffered heavy casualties, over 30 KIA, its Soldiers held their own until a relief force arrived the following morning. The VC battalion, however, had paid heavy toll for its attempt to overrun C Company. With over 100 killed in action and its base camp destroyed, the remnants of the enemy unit were forced to flee to avoid complete destruction as the rest of the battalion continued the search.

ABILENE was followed by Operation BIRMINGHAM which took place on the Cambodian Border west of Tay Ninh. During BIRMINGHAM, A Company, and elements of the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry, took on the 3rd Battalion 70th Security Guards Regiment at Lo Go on 30 April. This severe five-hour battle resulted in at least 54 confirmed KIAs and perhaps as many as another 50 enemy dead.

Throughout the rest of 1966, the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry participated a series of pacification operations. The overall mission of these operations was to move into a semi-populated area and conduct extended operations to find and destroy enemy troops and support areas. These consisted of Operations EL PASO I, II, and II, ALLENTOWN, and FAIRFAX. In the latter mission, the 2nd Rangers inflicted numerous losses among the local VC guerrillas by setting up night ambushes along the Saigon River in the Thu Duc District just northeast of Saigon.

Shortly after the beginning of the new year, the 2nd Rangers participated in Operation LAM SON in the Phu Loi area. This pacification operation had been continuously maintained on a rotational basis by several infantry battalions for over six months prior to the arrival of the 2nd Battalion. The operation made use of practically all infantry tactics used in counterinsurgency operations, including day and night ambushes, village seal and search missions, heliborne assault, search and clear, and search and destroy operations. During LAM SON, the battalion compiled an impressive record and it was reported that the 2nd Rangers were the most successful infantry battalion to conduct such operations since the start of the mission.

In late February, the 2nd Battalion was pulled out of LAM SON to join in Operation JUNCTION CITY, the largest single mission of the war. Though a huge effort, the 2nd Rangers’ own experience was largely uneventful. It conducted numerous, but fruitless, search and destroy sweeps near the Cambodian Border in an attempt to find the Central Office of South Vietnam (COSVN), the controlling headquarters for VC units in the III Tactical Zone. During most of the rest of 1967, the battalion continued to conduct pacification efforts with 5th Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) Division partner units and conduct patrols, ambushes, and search and destroy missions near Ben Cat.

2LT Harry Smith and SFC Joe Shine develop plans during Operation Plumb Bob.

The end of January 1968 saw the beginning of the infamous Tet Offensive, the VC effort to overrun and win the war in South Vietnam. Both battalions of the regiment were intimately involved in the US Army’s own counteroffensive operations during this period. On the second day of the offensive, the 2nd Battalion, operating in conjunction with the 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry, took on the 9th PLAF Division’s 273rd Regiment. Over the next two days, the infantry/ cavalry team killed at least 372 enemy soldiers, including the regimental commander and staff, and destroyed a supporting a artillery battery. During the rest of the month the battalion kept parts of Highway 15 open, guarded bridges, and conducted countless patrols and ambushes in the An My—Di An—Phu Loi area. By March, the VC effort was thoroughly defeated and the enemy had sustained over 45,000 KIA.

Flush on the heels of what was a significant US-RVN victory, the 2nd Rangers partook in Operations QUYET THANG and TOAN THANG. These were pacification operations designed to consolidate gains made during Tet as well as start moving U.S. Army efforts more toward working with ARVN units to provide local security for key hamlets in villages in the hinterlands. As part of TOAN THANG, the battalion conducted a seal operation at Chanh Luu, a village east of Ben Cat, and succeeded in capturing 268 VC soldiers that were hiding there after their defeat during Tet. In September while conducting pacification efforts near “Claymore Corners,” the 2nd Battalion was suddenly redeployed by air to the vicinity of Loc Ninh to help hunt for the 7th People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) Division’s 141st Regiment. In a classic meeting engagement on 12 September, the battalion battled and pursued the 141st Regiment over the next two days inflicting hundreds of casualties and over fifty known KIA.

After the operations around Loc Ninh, the battalion was assigned to the “Accelerated Pacification Campaign” in November and continued on this effort into the new year as part of the LAM SON mission in the Phu Loi area north of Di An. Throughout 1969, the 2nd Rangers performed numerous and varied missions in support of the pacification campaign. In April it joined in Operation PLAINSFIELD WARRIOR in the “Trapezoid,” and in numerous search and destroy missions in June and July around Ben Cat and Lai Khe. Later in July the battalion was assigned the road security mission along a section of the highway to Song Be. Known as the “Thunder Run,” the route was so-named due to the many mortars, rockets, and mines the enemy used to interdict US and ARVN traffic along the road. The battalion remained engaged in that mission until September 1969 when it was transferred permanently to Lai Khe where it joined the 1st Battalion under the Big Red One’s 3rd Brigade, an assignment that held for the remainder of the war.

Late in September, the 3rd Brigade participated in Operation IRON DANGER, the first division-level mission of the year. While the 1st Battalion was sent to find and destroy elements of the Dong Nai Regiment near Bau Bang, the 2nd Rangers deployed to the “Rocket Belt” to engage the C-61 Local Force Unit. The battalion initially provided security for the construction of Fire Support Base (FSB) Lorraine and then conducted sweeps through the Rocket Belt, the “Deadman,” and the T-Ten stream complex looking for the C-61 until December. Both battalions experienced few contacts and discovered that their respective enemy forces were starving due to the success of the pacification campaign. The enemy at this point was far more interested in findng food than in fighting the Americans.

The remaining three months in Vietnam for the 2nd Battalion were busy in terms of patrolling operations and work with ARVN units. The battalion’s work changed in early March when it was ordered to pack up its equipment and prepare to depart Vietnam. Although its personnel were transferred home individually to be assigned to other commands, or be released from service, the battalion remained active while its colors and records were transported to Fort Riley where it would be reorganized as a mechanized infantry battalion in April 1970.

The 1st Battalion in Vietnam

The 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry arrived at Vung Tau, Vietnam, on 10 October 1965 with the 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. The battalion was initially moved to Camp Ben Cat in Phuoc Vinh Province north of Saigon. The division wasted no time getting this newly arrived brigade into the fight and in early November the battalion air assaulted into the field to participate in Operation BUSHMASTER I. This mission was designed to clear a zone along Highway 13 between Lai Khe and Ben Cat in Phouc Vinh Province to prevent VC interception of convoys moving along its length. The unit conducted numerous air assaults during BUSHMASTER and earned a reputation for flexibility, mobility, and aggressiveness. This was followed closely by BUSHMASTER II where both battalions of the regiment were both employed under the 3rd Brigade in “search and destroy” missions in late November and early December. The brigade’s operations centered around the Michelin Rubber Plantation, an area with which both battalions would become intimately familiar over the next four years. In the first two months of operations, the 1st Battalion had killed or captured over 1600 NVA or VC soldiers.

A 1st Battalion Soldier carries a Vietnamese boy to safety. AP-Faas

The BUSHMASTER operations were followed by MASTIFF in February 1966. This mission took the battalion to the vicinity of Dau Tiang where this time it operated with its brother battalion under the 2nd Brigade. MASTIFF was a fairly intense operation that focused on clearing out a notorious VC support zone between Dau Tiang and Saigon. In April , the 1st Rangers were sent east of Saigon to participate in the division-level ABILENE mission to find and destroy the 5th PLAF Division. On this operation the battalion operated in and around the Nui Ba Quon mountain complex in the southern sector of the mission area. ABILENE was followed in rapid succession by Operations BIRMINGHAM and EL PASO I, II, and III. On 9 July during EL PASO II, the 1st Rangers participated in the Battle of Minh Thanh Road. This effort was designed to entice the 9th PLAF Division’s 272nd Regiment into spring an ambush on the division’s 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry, and a preplanned stretch of that route. Once the enemy showed himself, the 1st Battalion, along with three other battalions, would pile on the regiment and destroy it. Though the effort failed to destroy the regiment, the 1st Rangers help to kill over 300 VC Regulars and an untold number of WIAs.

After he EL PASO missions, the battalion next took part in Operation AMARILLO in August near Lai Khe, and Operations TULSA/SHENANDOAH in October and November. The latter mission was designed to bring the 9th PLAF Division to battle in War Zone C, but the enemy declined to take the bait. Operation ATTLEBORO once again saw the regiment’s two battalions operating on the same mission to find and destroy the 9th PLAF Division, this time northwest of Dau Tiang. This mission failed to develop any significant skirmishes because it was soon discovered that the enemy formation was fleeing for the Cambodian border after having over 1,100 troops KIA since the summer. The last mission for the battalion for 1966 was Operation HEALDSBURG near Lai Khe in December. The mission ended with about 2 dozen enemy casualties, but no significant battles.

In January 1967, the 1st Battalion next joined in Operation CEDAR FALLS. a major effort conducted by the 1st and 25th Infantry Divisions, the 173rd Airborne Brigade, and the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. The intent for CEDAR FALLS was to imposed severe casualties on VC units in Military Region 4, known as the “Iron Triangle” and the Thanh Dien Forest. This mission ended about mid-January and resulted in over 700 enemy casualties and huge amounts of rice and military supplies captured in various base camps in the area. CEDAR FALLs was followed by the enormous and extended Operation JUNCTION CITY. The 1st Rangers participated in two major fights during JUNCTION CITY: Prek Klok and Ap Gu. In the former battle, Platoon Sergeant Matthew Leonard from B Company was mortally wounded while demonstrating indomitable courage and superb leadership. For his actions he was awarded the regiment’s tenth Medal of Honor. The battalion next experienced two additional significant firefights during Operation BILLINGS north of Phuoc Vinh in June. These were the battles of Landing Zone (LZ) Rufe and LZ X-Ray. During the latter action, the Reconnaissance Platoon of the 1st Battalion heroically withstood an attack by a battalion of the 271st PLAF Regiment and prevented the battalion perimeter from being overrun. BILLINGS was followed by Operation SHENANDOAH II north of Lai Khe in October which once included both Ranger battalions and culminated the major operations of both for 1967.

The troops of A Company, 1st Battalion, board choppers during operations near the Michelin Rubber Plantation in August 1966. AP-Faas

The year 1968 was an eventful one for the 1st Battalion. Starting in late January, the battalion, along with almost the entire combat force of U.S. Army, Vietnam (USARV), engaged in the Tet Counteroffensive designed to defeat the massive Tet Offensive of 1968. After Tet, the battalion successively partook in Operations QUYET THANG and TOAN THANG. These operations held the battalion’s attention most of the year until October when the 1st Rangers underwent a major change. That month the battalion and the 5th Battalion, 60th Infantry swapped colors and divisions and the 1st Battalion became a mechanized infantry unit which it has remained ever since. Because of this change, the battalion soon adopted the nickname “Iron Rangers.”

Throughout 1969, the Iron Rangers were involved the Vietnamization process which was designed to start turning over the planning and conduct of the war to the ARVN. Even so, the battalion joined in a number of combat operations such as BEAR TRAP, FRIENDSHIP, KENTUCKY COUGAR, IRON DANGER, and TOAN THANG IV. During KENTUCKY COUGAR in August, the Iron Rangers ran into a battalion of the 272nd PLAF Regiment near An Loc in Long Binh Province and in an afternoon of hot fighting, accounted for 29 enemy KIA and an unknown number of wounded. During the year, the battalion accounted for an additional 426 enemy soldiers killed or captured even though the ARVN were supposed to take the lead for operations.

The last months in Vietnam saw the battalion working closely with its ARVN counterparts as it concurrently prepared to end its mission and redeploy to Fort Riley. Combat activity did not abate, however, as the Iron Rangers still conducted 690 ambush patrols in January and 803 in February. The cessation of combat activities in the Republic of Vietnam for the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry ended on 3 March 1970. Soon after, the battalion stood down and all personnel headed home. As with the 2nd Battalion, the Iron Ranger battalion remained nominally active as its colors and records were shipped to Germany for its postwar mission.

The two battalions of the 16th Infantry fought in almost every campaign of the Vietnam War. As with the regiment’s other conflicts, it sustained a high number of casualties to include over 560 men who nobly sacrificed their lives in their country’s service. These men, and tens of thousands of others, did as their country asked to the end, even though the war’s level of support was eroded over time by political bickering back home. During the almost five years of combat the regiment’s soldiers were awarded 2 Medals of Honor (both posthumous), 10 Distinguished Service Crosses, and hundreds of Silver and Bronze Star Medals. The regiment was awarded 11 campaign streamers, as well as 2 Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry (with Palm) Streamers for 1965-1968 and 1969 and the Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal (First Class) Streamer for 1965-1970. In addition, C Company, 2nd Battalion was awarded the Valorous Unit Award Streamer for its actions at the battle of Courtenay Plantation.

In the mechanized configuration, the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) assumed a new mission. With the exception of the 3rd Brigade, the division was now part of the heavy forces maintained in the United States that were tagged for deployment to Germany to reinforce NATO forces there in the event of an invasion by the Soviet Union. The 3rd Brigade, being stationed in Germany already, was an integral part of the existing NATO defenses. To prepare the bulk of the 1st Infantry Division for its wartime mission focus for the next twenty years, the division’s training largely focused on two frequently recurring exercises. One was Exercise REFORGER (Return of Forces to Germany) which was designed to prepare the division for rapid deployment to Europe. The second major training event started in 1983 and consisted of rotations to the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California about every 18 months for each brigade.

Soldiers of the 2nd Battalion board a C-141 during REFORGER II in October 1970.

REFORGER II in October 1970.
While the 2nd Battalion at Fort Riley focused on those major exercises, it also participated in a number of other important training events during this period. These included things such as training assistance to the National Guard, support to the annual R.O.T.C. summer camps at Fort Riley, and occasional “adventure training,” not to mention the usual weapons range periods, maneuver training on post, and the annual Army Readiness and Training Evaluation (ARTEP) tests. It also participated in various annual division exercises such a CASUS BELLI, an annual command post exercise (CPX) that focused on one of several NATO war plans, and MANHATTAN, a division-level movements exercise that often placed the division’s vehicles on long marches over vast stretches of Kansas countryside.

In Germany, the 1st Battalion also conducted training events similar to those of the 2nd Battalion, less assistance to the National Guard and R.O.T.C. summer camps. Added to the Iron Rangers’ list of tasks however were things such as frequent rail operations to training areas at Grafenwöhr and Hohenfels and frequent trips out to the battalion’s General Defense Plan (GDP) positions to recon and evaluate how it would defend the ground. The battalion also participated in the various REFORGER exercises and occasionally trained at locations like the urban combat site in Berlin.

By the early 1970s, the Army Reserve’s 3rd Battalion was struggling to maintain its personnel strength due to the draw down in Vietnam and the US Army’s changeover to an All Volunteer force. As a result, in a major reorganization of U.S. Army Reserve units in 1976, the battalion was transferred to Maine with headquarters at Saco, and the subordinate companies located throughout that state and with its Combat Support Company in New Hampshire. The move was designed to lessen the competition for personnel with other battalions still in Massachusetts. Now known as the “Maine Rangers” the battalion headquarters was subsequently relocated to Portland, Maine, in 1977, and finally to Scarborough, Maine, in 1978. By this time the battalion had assumed a wartime mission of the reinforcement of Iceland as part of the 187th Infantry Brigade (Separate). To prepare for this mission, the battalion performed its annual active duty training in the 1970s at Fort Devens initially, then went to Fort Drum, New York and at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, in later years. The trips to Camp Edwards in the 1980s were typically conducted in the winter months to better replicate the kind of conditions the brigade might encounter in Iceland during much of the year.

In 1983, the US Army underwent a major reorganization that encompassed a new division TOE (i.e., “Division 86” or the “J-Series” TOE) and something called the US Army Regimental System (USARS). Under USARS, the regiment was expanded by two additional active infantry battalions: the 4th Battalion (nicknamed the “Blue Devils”), stationed at Göppingen, Germany, as part of the 1st Infantry Division (Forward) and the 5th Battalion (nicknamed the “Devil Rangers”), assigned to the 1st Brigade at Fort Riley. These new battalions were activated to support the USARS and a new manning system called COHORT (Cohesion, Operational Readiness Training). Under the COHORT concept entire companies would go through basic and advanced individual training together, transfer to their new battalion, and spend the rest of the “life cycle” of the company training together until replaced by another COHORT company at the end of 3 years. Additionally, the program’s intent was that a Soldier would spend his entire career, except for non-divisional assignments such as recruiting, R.O.T.C., or Reserve Component advisory duty, in the same regiment, transferring to Germany and back again to Fort Riley, in the case of the units in the 1st Infantry Division. Although neither COHORT or USARS were successful programs, they were still nominally in effect in 1990 when the regiment was once again called to war.

In the initial stages of the operation, that is just before, during, and after the breach made in the 2nd Brigade’s sector, the major problem faced by the Rangers of the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry was not so much enemy fire (though that was a hindrance) as it as the large number of Iraqi soldiers surrendering to the troops of the battalion. By darkness of the 24th, the Rangers had not only conducted a major breach into the Iraqi defensive zone, they had also penetrated 30 kilometers to Phase Line Colorado and captured some 600 enemy troops. The following morning, the 2nd Battalion pushed on with the 2nd Brigade and quickly battled through the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division capturing its commander and destroying its command post. By the end of that day, the brigade had cut through and destroyed the Iraqi 25th Division as well and had reached Phase Line Utah where it took up a temporary defensive position.

SPC Allen C. Smith, C Company, 2nd Battalion, and GEN Norman Schwartzkopf upon the successful conclusion of Operation DESERT STORM, February 1991.

After its breaching operations, the Big Red One’s 1st Brigade, consisting in part of the 5th Battalion, 16th Infantry and the 2nd Battalion 34th Armor, turned east and drove deep into enemy territory toward Phase Line Utah. En route on the 25th, the Devil Rangers also encountered a number of enemy formations, most notably the 110th Infantry Brigade. In a brief skirmish, that brigade’s commander was scooped up by soldiers of the battalion. Like its brother battalion, the 5th Battalion was rounding up hundreds of enemy prisoners who had no fight left in them by this time. Ahead however, was the much vaunted Republican Guard known to be positioned at a place on the map called Objective NORFOLK. On the night of 26 February 1991, the 1st Brigade next collided with the Republican Guard’s Tawalakana Division and the 37th Brigade, 12th Armored Division. The fight developed into a division-level battle and before dawn the Big Red One had destroyed both enemy formations. Enemy losses included more than 40 tanks and 40 infantry fighting vehicles. The 1st Infantry Division continued to exploit its success on the 27th by capturing and pursuing the demoralized Iraqi forces for the rest of the day.

Following the Battle of Objective NORFOLK, the 5th Battalion raced ahead to assist in cutting the Iraqi lines of retreat from Kuwait City. As it approached the highway moving north out of Kuwait City and into southern Iraq, the Big Red One destroyed scores of enemy vehicles and took thousands more prisoners as the division’s units advanced. About 2000, 27 February, the division’s 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry, seized the main highway leading north out of Kuwait and barred the Iraqis’ escape. By the next morning, the rest of the division had taken up positions along the highway completely blocking any further movement north by the Iraqi Army. The cease fire was announced at 0800 on 28 February and the war was essentially over. While the Rangers of the 2nd Battalion were ordered to move over the ground just taken and destroy any remaining Iraqi vehicles and equipment that could be located in the rear, the 5th Battalion was ordered to the vicinity of Safwan Airfield in Iraq. There, the Devil Rangers were tasked with securing the site where on 3 March 1991 the negotiations were held between coalition forces and Iraqi leaders to finalize the cease-fire agreements. In this conflict the regiment earned 4 campaign streamers and each of the 2nd and 5th Battalions earned a Valorous Unit Award Streamer embroidered IRAQ-KUWAIT.

As with the rest of the US Army at this time, the division, and its subordinate units, groped for just what it was preparing for in the way of potential future conflicts and enemies now that the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact had imploded. Much of the division’s training continued to focus on fighting a Warsaw Pact kind of enemy even though no such threat existed even on the horizon. Still, in the increasingly unstable environment of Third World Countries, there soon developed other real-world missions for which the US Army would be called upon to be the arbiter and honest broker, or to provide support to other forces attempting to provide stability in troubled areas. In the Fall of 1991, elements of the 3rd Battalion were called to active duty to support drug surveillance operations by the US Customs border patrol in Arizona. This mission was also supported from time to time by the active battalions of the regiment as well.

Most of the activities of the regiment’s battalions remained centered on conventional mid- to high intensity warfare and Cold War type missions. For example, in 1992 the 3rd Battalion conducted annual training on its Iceland mission at Gagetown, Canada, with the rest of the 187th Infantry Brigade. That fall, the 1st Infantry Division once again deployed to Germany on REFORGER, albeit only one reduced brigade drew vehicles from POMCUS stocks to exercise that part of the mission. Most of the exercise consisted of an electronically distributed wargame conducted as a command post exercise. In addition to these kinds of training events, the two active battalions continued to participate in rotations to the National Training Center (NTC) in California and the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC) at Hohenfels to fight against a Soviet equipped opposing force.

An Iron Ranger of the 1st Battalion on guard duty at Camp Dobol, Bosnia.

The new Clinton administration which came to office in 1993, wanted to cut the military defense budget further so that the country might enjoy a so-called “Peace Dividend.” The result of this effort was a dramatically reduced US military. These cuts also hit the regiment very hard. Like other Soldiers of the 16th Infantry, the Army Reservists of the 3rd Battalion were immensely proud of their membership in a unit with such an outstanding record. It was with great sadness then when the battalion’s colors were furled at Fort Devens on 15 April 1994. Two years later, in April 1996, the 2nd Battalion was also inactivated, leaving the Iron Rangers as the only active element remaining in the regiment.

In the mid-1990s, civil war broke out in the former Yugoslavian states of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result, US and other NATO forces were sent in to separate the warring factions and provide stability to the region. Therefore, in August 1999, the 1st Battalion deployed to Bosnia on Operation JOINT FORGE from August 1999 to April 2000 with the 1st Brigade for peacekeeping operations as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) 6 rotation. The battalion was deployed to Camp Dobol, but had elements located at Camps McGovern, Demi and Comanche, as well.

(This section to be continued)

1-16 IN on Patrol in Ramadi, 2003

Within a few months after the initial invasion of Iraq, the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry made its first deployment in the Global War on Terrorism. In August 2003, the Iron Rangers, equipped as a standard Bradley Fighting Vehicle-equipped battalion, deployed with the 1st Brigade to Ramadi, Anbar Province, in western Iraq. The brigade was initially attached to the 82nd Airborne Division and took over Area of Operations (AO) Topeka on 26 September. Over the next year the Iron Rangers had numerous skirmishes with Sunni insurgents in and around the provincial capital city of Ramadi. Most notably, during 6-10 April 2004 when operating with elements of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Unit, the battalion fought a protracted battle with insurgents in the city. When a stranded Marine platoon was ambushed and pinned down by insurgents trying to distract US forces from the concurrent operations in Fallujah, the battalion was ordered into the city on line to take on the insurgents fighting there. Between the Marines and Iron Rangers, the insurgents in Ramadi suffered about 250 KIA by the time the battalion rumbled to the far side of the city. For the rest of the month the battalion, along with other Marine and Army units, killed between 800 and 1000 insurgents in running battles in the corridor between Ramadi and Fallujah. In addition to combat operations, during this tour the Iron Rangers trained elements of the new Iraqi Army as well as assisted with the implementation of numerous civil support projects. The battalion returned to Fort Riley in September 2004.

In 2006, as part of the 1st Brigade, the 1st Battalion was given a new mission to train Military Transition Teams (“MiTTs”) which would deploy to Iraq to advise and assist the units of the fledgling Iraqi Army. The battalion, however, was still required to maintain its ability to participate in overseas contingency operations. As a result, the battalion was reorganized into three deployable line companies (A, B, and C) and six MiTT training companies (D, I, K, L, M, and N). Between 2006 and 2008, the three deployable companies were sent on GWOT missions overseas: A Company was deployed to the Horn of Africa and B and C Companies each served in Iraq. Concurrently, the the MiTT training companies conducted one of the Army’s most important training missions back at Fort Riley. This mission was carried on by the battalion until 2009 when the responsibility was handed over to the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. For its performance in training the Army’s MiTTs, the battalion was awarded the Army Superior Unit streamer for 2006-2009. Additionally, B Company was awarded the Army Meritorious Unit Commendation streamer for its work in Iraq in 2006-2007.

PFC Robert Wimegar, left, and SSGT Troy Bearden, A Company, 2nd Battalion, pull security at the District Council Hall in the Mashtal area, East Baghdad, Iraq, in March 2007. US Army

In January 2006, the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry was reactivated at Fort Riley as a part of the newly organized 4th Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 1st Infantry Division. The 2nd Rangers were reformed as a light infantry battalion under the Army’s new modular concept. Just over a year later, in February 2007, the battalion deployed to eastern Baghdad as part of President’s George W. Bush’s Surge in Iraq. Initially the battalion was attached to the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, then later attached to the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division. It was assigned the mission of providing security in the southern area of the Tisa Nissan Qada (district) in southeastern Baghdad. The battalion’s desired endstate was to pacify four of the most violent neighborhoods in Baghdad—Rustamiyah, Fedaliyah, Al Amin, and Kamaliyah—which had been dominated by Al-Qaeda and Sunni insurgents, as well as Jaysh Al-Mahdi (JAM), a Shia militia group. The battalion aggressively went to work partnering with local Iraqi Army units and police to find and eliminate any local insurgent groups in the AO. The Rangers succeeded in significantly reducing the insurgent threat by focusing on heavy local patrolling using small teams and unconventional tactics. In addition to the combat missions, however, the battalion also assisted in the creation of literacy programs, the refurbishment of schools, and the installation of sewage systems. By the time the battalion departed in 2008, its areas of the Tisa Nissan Qada had become one of the most secure areas in Baghdad.

On 1 September 2009, the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry returned to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom 09-11. This time the battalion operated under its parent unit, the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division in the vicinity of Bayji in north central Iraq. At Bayji, the battalion was assigned an advise and assist role with elements of the Iraqi 4th Infantry Division as well as with the local Iraqi Police forces which supported the local governments in its area of operations. Units of the battalion conducted several unusual operations during the tour to include an air assault operation with the Iraqi 48th Brigade to remote island near Aitha, Iraq in October as well as conducting cache search patrols in the Makhul Mountains. After a more calm, though still dangerous tour this time around, the battalion returned to Fort Riley in late April and early May 2010, with the exception of A Company, which remained until that August.

After performing the MiTT training mission for three years, the 1st Battalion began the process of reorganizing and training as one of the Army’s new Combined Arms Battalions (CAB) in 2009. As a CAB, the battalion would retain the capabilities of a mechanized infantry battalion, but two companies (C and D) would be reorganized as tank companies. In this configuration, the battalion would be reorganized into a permanent company combat team which was the standard doctrine for how such a battalion would normally fight anyway. The opportunity to adequately train in this configuration was short lived and the Iron Rangers were not even fully equipped before they came down on orders for overseas movement as a standard infantry battalion.

In August 2011, the 1st Battalion was deployed once again, this time on a unique mission to Afghanistan. For this deployment, the battalion was attached to the Combined Joint Special Operations Command-Afghanistan (CJSOCC-A) and assigned to support a new effort known as the Village Stability Operations (VSO) program. This program required that the battalion be broken down into squads and sometimes fire teams and distributed to selected villages throughout Regional Commands East, South, West, and North. The squads and teams worked with Special Forces Teams and other special operations forces to help the villagers raise detachments of Afghan Local Police (ALP) who would then provide security to the villages. Dubious initially that a conventional infantry unit could do this type of mission, the CJSOCC-A was so satisfied with the battalion’s performance that within 6 months a second infantry battalion was assigned to the mission and took over the battalion’s VSO villages in RCs South and West. This non-conventional/conventional team has remained the staple of the VSO program up to the time of this writing. The Iron Rangers returned to Fort Riley in April and May 2012 having performed an outstanding service in furtherance toward peace and security in Afghanistan.

Even as the 1st Battalion was returning home, the 2nd Battalion was deploying on its third overseas tour of the GWOT. As with its brother battalion, the 2nd Rangers were sent to Afghanistan for this tour, this time to the eastern sections of Ghazni Province. In April the Rangers assumed responsibility for 2 districts and 2 Afghan National Army (ANA) kandaks (battalions). The battalion conducted daily combat patrols side by side with their Afghan partner units to influence and secure the local population throughout the districts. At one location, Combat Outpost Muqor, the battalion’s D Company experienced double the number of firefights due to a strong local insurgency there, than the rest of the battalion did combined for the tour. Firefights there resulted in the loss of two company commanders, one of whom was KIA in the early stages of the tour.

Rangers of the 2nd Battalion take cover during a patrol in Ghazni Province in Afghanistan in 2012.

In August 2012, the 2nd Battalion underwent its first of several expansions to its AO when it assumed responsibility for a third district and a third ANA Kandak as the Surge forces in the country were being withdrawn. The new district brought new challenges, as the Rangers began patrolling the vital Highway 1 route between Kabul and Kandahar to ensure it remained open for commercial and military traffic. With reduced forces and additional ANA partners, the Rangers began to place the Afghans in the lead militarily. ANA units readily assumed responsibility for their own districts, demonstrating the sound tactical knowledge and hard-fought experience they had gained through years of fighting and US Army mentorship.

As the ANA took over the tactical fight, the Rangers’ efforts at local governance and development tasks became even more important in November as the battalion assumed responsibility for 2 more districts, 5 additional installations, and a Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) battalion. This action further necessitated the ANA taking the lead for more operations and governance needs at the district level. A separate but extremely important development during the deployment was the emergence of the Anti-Taliban Movements (ATMs) throughout Afghanistan. Somewhat similar to the “Sunni Awakening” in Iraq, the ATMs began in Ghazni in the Andar District as a popular uprising against the Taliban’s totalitarian control. The population began to vote against the Taliban for the first time in many areas and reached out to their local government and security forces to fill the security and governance void.

With Afghans in the lead for all aspects of the fight, and local Afghans actively resisting the Taliban and other insurgent forces, the stage appeared set for the ISAF mission to soon come to a close within Afghanistan as the battalion ended its own tour. The 2nd Battalion arrived home recently in February 2013 to begin the transition from a Counterinsurgency force to whatever focus the Army needs to confront its future challenges.

Concurrently, since May 2012, the 1st Battalion has been steadily acquiring the skills once again to enable it to be employed as a full fledged CAB, capable of taking on any enemy heavy force. The training of infantry squads on the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and crew training and weapons firing for both Bradleys and M1A2 Abrams tanks on Fort Riley’s Multiple Purpose Range Complex are the order of the day.

In short, the operations of both battalions during the GWOT are typical of the aggressiveness, flexibility, drive, and competence demonstrated by the 16th Infantry throughout its history. Today, just like they have since the organization of the regiment over 150 years ago, the Rangers continue to be one of the finest units in the United States Army. As always, the Rangers of the 16th Infantry Regiment stand ready to defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies and fight under “Old Glory” when their nation calls.


Introduction To Civil War Cavalry

The size of the U. S. Regiment of Dragoons was fixed by Congress, at 34 officers and 1,715 men. Henry Dodge was appointed the colonel in command. Other noteworthy officers were Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny, Captain Edwin V. Sumner, First Lieutenant Philip St. George Cooke, and Second Lieutenant Jefferson Davis.(Urwin, 55)

For the Mexican War it was clear that the US needed more mounted troops: the distances in Mexico were so great. There was some expansion in the Regulars, but many of the units were volunteers that were dissolved at the end of the war. In 1850 the Federal Government followed suit. Only two Dragoon regiments and one regiment of Mounted Riflemen (created in 1846) survived the government postwar reductions. But five years later, on March 3, 1855, Congress authorized the raising of two regiments of horse. These were needed to handle the expanding western frontier, especially as settlers pushed more and more against the Indians.

The 1st and 2nd U. S. Cavalry were the first regular American military organizations to bear the title of "cavalry".(Urwin, 96) It was rumored among the Dragoons and Mounted Riflemen that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis purposely received this special designation to enable him to appoint many of his Southern friends while disregarding seniority among the older mounted units. Whether this rumor was true or not, the disproportionate number of Southern officers in the new units would definitely affect the forming of the Union cavalry in the Civil War six years later.

The 1st Cavalry was assembled at Fort Leavenworth and commanded by Colonel Edwin V. Sumner. Five of his officers were later to play a significant role in the Civil War: Lt. Col. Joseph E. Johnston, Maj. John Sedgwick, Maj. William H. Emory, Capt. George B. McClellan, and Lt. J. E. B. Stuart. (Urwin, 96)

The 2nd Cavalry was trained at Jefferson Barracks. Albert Sidney Johnston was the Colonel, and some of his officers were: Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee, Maj. William J. Hardee, Maj. George H. Thomas, Captains Earl Van Dorn, George Stoneman, Edmund Kirby Smith, Lieutenants John Bell Hood, and Fitzhugh Lee. The 2nd was nicknamed 'Jeff Davis's Own,' and over the next four years clashed with hostiles nearly forty times. The regiment's most successful sorties were directed by its senior captain, Brev. Maj. Earl Van Dorn. (Urwin, 96-7)

At the onset of the Civil War in 1861, there were five regiments of U. S. cavalry: the 1st and 2nd Dragoons, the 1st Mounted Rifles, and the 1st and 2nd Cavalry. Shortly after the 3rd Cavalry was organized in 1861, all the regiments were renumbered from one to six and the twelve troops organization adopted. (Coggins, 48)

Out of the 176 officers of the five original regiments, 104 cast their lot with their native Southern states when the Civil War broke. As a result of this, not only did the Union cavalry have many green and untested troops, their officers were inexperienced too. In contrast, the Confederate cavalry had more experienced leadership which contributed to several years of battlefield superiority.

U. S. cavalry regiments were organized as follows: each regiment contained 12 troops, each troop consisting of 100 men, commanded by a Captain, a 1st Lieutenant, a 2nd Lieutenant, and a Supernumerary Lieutenant. In 1863, changes were made to create a more flexible cavalry. The squadron was dropped, along with the supernumerary Lieutenant, and battalions, usually of four troops, were formed. These were handier on the march (shorter columns) and were a better size to detach than a full regiment.

A regiment was commanded by a Colonel, and had a Lieutenant Colonel, 3 Majors, and staff of an Adjutant, a Quartermaster, a Commissary, and a regimental Surgeon and assistant. The noncoms included: one Sergeant-Major, one Quartermaster Sergeant., one Commissary Sergeant, one saddler Sergeant, a chief farrier or blacksmith, and two hospital stewards.

Each troop, which now numbered 82-100 men, had its 1st Sergeant., Quartermaster Sergeant., a Commissary Sergeant., in addition to five Sergeants., eight Corporals, two teamsters, two farriers, one saddler, one waggoner, and two musicians.

The Southern cavalry regiment was organized along the same lines. On paper, it consisted of ten companies or squadrons, each numbering 60 to 80 privates. Each company was officered by a Captain, a 1st and 2nd Lieutenant, and included five Sergeants, four Corporals, a farrier and a blacksmith. The regimental officers were a Colonel, with a Lieutenant Colonel, a Major and an Adjutant. (Coggins, 49) This was the organization on paper rarely were units up to strength.

In both Confederate and Union armies, the regiments were formed into brigades brigades into divisions divisions into corps. A Confederate cavalry division might have up six brigades, while a Union division typically had two or three brigades. The number of regiments in each brigade varied from two to six, depending on the strength of the units. A corps contained two or three divisions.

Whenever possible, horse artillery was attached to the cavalry, and was followed by its own train of ammunition, supply wagons and rolling forage.

During the Civil War the cavalry reached its zenith, marking the highest position the horse soldier would ever hold in the American military. Between 1861-1865, 272 full regiments of cavalry were raised to preserve the Union, 137 for the South. This number does not include the separate battalions nor the independent companies raised.

Traditionally, cavalry was considered the "eyes" of the army, keeping their commander informed of the enemy's movements. They also screened their own army, covered flanks, disrupted enemy communication and supply lines, and provided a mobile striking force when needed.

Initially, the U. S. government saw the cavalry as extravagant and needless spending, turning away many units that were offered by individual states for service. Northern politicians subscribed to the theory that it took a good two years to train an efficient cavalryman, and thought the rebellious Southerners would be crushed long before any Federal cavalry could take to the field. For this reason, only seven troops of regular cavalry were available for the first battle of Bull Run.

After that, the opinions of the Union high command regarding cavalry altered significantly. The eyewitness accounts of a full regiment of gray-clad horseman pursuing the routed Federals most likely was crucial to the turnaround. Not only did Lt. Col. J. E. B. Stuart's 1st Virginia Cavalry support the Confederates, but also the four-company mounted battalion of Col. Wade Hampton's Legion and several independent companies.(Urwin, 110) However, both sides split their cavalry up, using troops here and there attached to most of the infantry brigades.

By the end of August 1861, thirty-one volunteer cavalry regiments had been raised for the Union Army. When the first year of the Civil War came to a close, the North had eighty-two new regiments of cavalry. (Urwin, 112)

While it is often maintained that cavalry was little more than mounted infantry, testimony by participants proves the contrary. General Early reported in 1864:

". but the fact is, the enemy's cavalry is much superior to ours, both in numbers and equipment, and the country is so favorable to the operations of cavalry, that it is impossible for ours to compete with his. Lomax's cavalry is armed entirely with rifles and has no sabers, and the consequence is they cannot fight on horseback, and in this open country they cannot successfully fight on foot against large bodies of cavalry." (Coggins, 49)

Sir Henry Havelock, speaking of Sheridan's attack at Sayler's Creek, said:

"The mode in which Sheridan, from the special arming and training of his cavalry, was able to deal with this rear guard, first to overtake it in retreat, then to pass completely beyond it, to turn to face it, and take up at leisure a position strong enough to enable him to detain it in spite of its naturally fierce and determined efforts to break through, is highly characteristic of the self reliant, all-sufficing efficiency to which at this time the Northern horseman had been brought. " (Coggins, 49)

Due to the increased performance of the rifled musket, charges against infantry were rare, and often scoffed at by the foot soldier. When charged by Union cavalry, a Southern general said his men would respond with the cry "Boys, here are those fools coming again with their sabers give it to them." (Coggins, 50)

Some horsemen developed their own tactics, freeing themselves of the unsound traditions of European cavalry. Such was the case with the raider, General John Hunt Morgan. General Basil W. Duke, Morgan's brother-in-law and author of "History of Morgan's Cavalry," noted the following:

"Exactly the same evolutions were applicable for horseback or foot fighting, but the latter method was much practiced--we were in fact not cavalry, but mounted riflemen. A small body of mounted men was usually kept in reserve to act on the flanks, cover the retreat or press a victory, but otherwise our men fought very little on horseback, except on scouting expeditions." (Coggins, 50)

Generally, troops were maneuvered in columns of fours, which were flexible and easier to deploy. While older army drill books called for deploying into two ranks for a charge, General St. George Cooke's drill book of '62, and Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler's, called for a single rank. (Coggins, 51) Charges were also made in columns of fours, or double columns of fours. The ideal position from which to launch an attack was from the flank.

In many instances troopers fought dismounted, particularly in the latter part of the war when remounts became scarce, and the mounted cavalry charge was looked upon as reckless. Some circumstances which called for dismounting were: to seize and hold ground until infantry arrived, to fill gaps in lines of battle, covering the retreat of infantry, or where the ground was impractical for mounted cavalry.

On the march, cavalry could cover some thirty-five miles in an eight-hour day under good conditions. However, some raids and expeditions pushed man and beast to the limits. During Stuart's raid on Chambersburg in 1862, his command marched eighty miles in twenty-seven hours in 1864, Wilson's & Kautz's divisions marched 300 miles in ten days. On Morgan's great raid, his troopers were in the saddle for an average of twenty hours a day.

Troopers often slept in their saddles on such long marches, and the horses would plod along in a somnambulist state. When there were large bodies of cavalry, the took up a great distance of the road. Jack Coggins, author of "Arms and Equipment of the Civil War," estimates distances thusly "A horse occupies approximately three yards, and there was a distance of about one yard between ranks. A troop of ninety-six men in columns of fours would be ninety-five yards long." Colonel Kidd of the Sixth Michigan Cavalry noted that Sheridan's column of ten thousand troopers stretched for thirteen miles.

At a walk, cavalry could cover four miles in an hour at a slow trot, six at a maneuvering trot, eight at an alternate trot and walk, five at a maneuvering gallop, twelve and at a full extended gallop, sixteen.

Veteran troopers learned to travel as light as possible, living off of the countryside. This practice not only spared the mount but enabled the troops to cover ground more rapidly.

The Federal Volunteer cavalrymen were armed with sabers and revolvers. Initially, some carried carbines or rifles. But as the war progressed, the carbine became the standard issued weapon. A light, curved, cavalry saber eventually replaced the heavier, straight, Prussian type saber. Common models of revolvers carried were percussion Army or Navy model, or a Remington.

The Southern cavalryman also carried saber, revolver and carbine, though some carried a rifle or a muzzle-loading shotgun. The Sharps carbine was often preferred due to its advantage of firing a linen cartridge, whereas others required metallic cartridges.

It wasn't uncommon to find a cavalryman sporting two revolvers, and some, like Mosby's men, carried four. In the latter part of the war, some Union regiments were armed with the Henry rifle, an improvement over the Sharps and Spencer, as it fired up to sixteen shots with great accuracy.

Though the South had enjoyed superiority within the cavalry branch for the first two years of the war, the tables would be turned by 1863. Southern shortages of manpower, horseflesh and arms, along with vast improvements in weaponry for the North, resulted in a formidable foe on the battlefields.

In 1865, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, depleted and starving, was hounded by Federal cavalry as it headed west from Richmond. Federal troopers overran twenty-four Confederate cannon, holding Lee in place until Federal infantry could arrive, thus sealing the fate of the Confederate Army at Appomattox Court House on April 9.

Appomattox must have been a victory for Federal cavalrymen to savor, no longer the laughing stocks of the Army of the Potomac, but one of the most efficient bodies of soldiers on earth.

Reference sources: "Arms and Equipment of the Civil War," Coggins, Jack, Doubleday & Company, New York 1962

"The United States Cavalry An Illustrated History," Urwin, Gergory J. W., Blandford Press, Poole Dorset, 1983

"The Cavalry, Part IV, A photographic History of the Civil War," Miller, Francis Trevelyan, Castle Books, New York, 1957


The history of the Court of Appeal

The Court of Appeal of England and Wales was created in 1875, and is split into two permanent Divisions, the Civil Division (which hears family cases as well as a range of civil appeals) and the Criminal Division, which hears appeals against criminal convictions and sentences.

Evolution of the court

Before 1875 there had been various courts which heard appeals on different aspects of the law, such as the Court of Exchequer Chamber. A growth in the number and complexity of cases, following the Industrial Revolution, led to the appointment of a Royal Commission, the Judicature Commission, which was required to examine the operation of the justice system and make recommendations for its reform. Its first report, issued in 1869, recommended the replacement of the existing courts with a new Supreme Court of Judicature, which was to be formed of a High Court and a Court of Appeal. Its recommendations were implemented by the Judicature Acts 1873 – 1875.

Following reforms contained in the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the Court of Appeal is now one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

Where does it sit and what cases does it deal with?

The Court of Appeal’s original jurisdiction was primarily civil. It did not gain jurisdiction over criminal appeals until the Court of Criminal Appeal’s jurisdiction was transferred to it under the Criminal Appeal Act 1966.

At the time it was created it sat at both Westminster Hall and in Lincoln’s Inn. Since the opening of the Royal Courts of Justice in 1882 it has been based there. On a number of occasions it does however sit outside London, and the Civil Division normally sits in Cardiff for two weeks each year.

Who sits in the Court of Appeal?

The Court is constituted of the Lord Chief Justice, Master of the Rolls and Heads of Division (President of the Queen’s Bench Division, President of the Family Division and Chancellor of the High Court), and 38 Lord and Lady Justices of Appeal.

The Lord Chief Justice is the President of the Criminal Division, while the Master of the Rolls is the President of the Civil Division. Normally one of the Lord or Lady Justices is appointed as Vice-President of the Criminal Division, while another is appointed Vice-President of the Civil Division.

In addition to these, permanent, judges of the Court, High Court judges and some senior Circuit Judges are authorised to sit in the Criminal Division, while a more limited number of High Court judges are authorised to sit in the Civil Division.

Retired Lord and Lady Justices can also hear cases in either Division, as can serving Justices of the UK Supreme Court appointed from England and Wales. Normally three Lord or Lady Justices sit on an appeal, although a single Lord or Lady Justice usually hears applications for permission to appeal.


Records of the office of Civilian Defense [OCD]

Established: In the Office for Emergency Management (OEM) by EO 8757, May 20, 1941.

Predecessor Agencies: Division of State and Local Cooperation, Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense (1940-41)

Functions: Coordinated federal, state, and local defense programs for the protection of civilians during air raids and other emergencies. Facilitated civilian participation in war programs.

Abolished: By EO 9562, June 4, 1945, effective June 30, 1945.

Finding Aids: Staffs of OCD and the National Archives, comps., "Inventory of the Records of Office of Civilian Defense," 2 vols. (1945).

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Office of Civilian Defense in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

Subject Access Terms: World War II, World War II agency.

171.2 Records of the Division of State and Local Cooperation, Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense
1940-41

History: Established within the Advisory Commission, August 2, 1940, to coordinate state and local civilian defense activities. Absorbed into the Office of Civilian Defense, June 1941.

Textual Records: General records, 1940-41. Minutes of meetings and weekly reports of operations of the Advisory Commission, 1940-41. Surveys of state and local defense facilities, 1940-41.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Division of State and Local Cooperation in RG 287, Publications of the U.S.

171.3 General Records of the Office of Civilian Defense
1940-45

Textual Records: Central file, 1940-45. Regional file, 1941-42. Letters sent and interoffice communications ("Classified File"), 1941-45. Index to letters received, 1940-45.

171.4 Records of Central Office Operating Units
1940-45

171.4.1 Records of the Office of the Director

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1942-44. Regional file, 1942-44. Letters sent, 1942-45. Civil Air Patrol issuances, 1942-43.

171.4.2 Records of the Administrative Division

Textual Records: Records of the Budget and Fiscal Section, 1941- 45. Records of the Business Service Section, consisting of OCD and predecessor publications, 1941-45.

171.4.3 Records of the Division of Federal-State Cooperation

Textual Records: OCD field organization charts, 1940-43. Records relating to civilian defense volunteer activities, 1941-45 children and young people, 1941-44 day care for children, 1942- 44 war loans, 1942-44 the Civilian War Services Branch, 1943- 44 and state defense activities, 1943-45. "War-Impact Area studies," 1943-44.

171.4.4 Records of the Industrial Protection Division

Textual Records: General and confidential files, 1941-44. Records of the States War Inspection Service, 1943-45. Records of the Facilities Security Branch, 1942-43. Minutes of meetings of the Industrial Protection Council and its Board of Review, 1943-45.

171.4.5 Records of the Legal Division

Textual Records: General file, 1942-44. Confidential records, 1942-44. Records relating to state and Congressional legislation, 1942-44.

171.4.6 Records of the Medical Division

Textual Records: General records, 1941-44. Historical records, 1941-44. Transcripts of proceedings of the Medical Advisory Board, December 1941. Records relating to nursing, 1942-44. Records of the Rescue Section, 1941-44.

Lantern Slides: Illustrating a Rescue Section lecture on proper organization, equipment, and techniques in rescue work after air raids, n.d. (RO, 179 images). See also 171.9.

Lantern Slides and Transparencies: Identification and properties of chemical warfare agents, defense and decontamination methods, and types of injuries, including animal experiments, 1941-45 (GAP, GD, GI, 176 images). See also 171.9.

Subject Access Terms: Arsine (photographs) chlorine (photographs) lewisite (photographs) mustard gas (photographs) phosgene (photographs) white phosphorus (photographs).

171.4.7 Records of the Protection Services Division

Textual Records: General records, 1942-45. Correspondence of the chief of the Protection Branch, 1942-43. Records of the Control and Communications Section, especially pertaining to civilian defense stations in the War Emergency Radio Service and the Aircraft Warning Service, 1941-44. Records of the Intelligence Officer, including narrative reports from regional directors to OCD, 1941-44 reports relating to civilian defense in Great Britain ("British Voluntary Reports" and "Marc Peter Reports"), 1942-44 reports on medical measures taken in Great Britain as protection against air raids ("Voluntary Medical Reports"), 1943 and reports on foreign countries, 1942-43. Records of the Engineer Section, 1942-45 Camouflage Unit, 1942-44 Fire Defense Section, 1942-43 Gas Protection Section, 1942-43 1941-45 Training Section, 1941-44 and Technical Board, 1941-44.

171.4.8 Records of the Public Counsel Division

Textual Records: Newspaper clippings, 1942-44. Publications of local, state, and regional defense councils, 1942-43. Records of the Press Unit, 1941-44. Radio scripts and correspondence of the Radio Section, 1942-43.

Motion Pictures: Training films for civilian defense workers, relating to mobilization, rescue, firefighting and prevention, child care, defense against poison gas attack, smoke concealment, air raid defense operations, and equipment and its use promotional films for victory gardens and food conservation and films of London under aerial attack, 1942-44 (46 reels).

Sound Recordings: Radio broadcasts by the OCD, the Office of War Information, the National Safety Council, the Commerce and Industry Association of New York, the Young Men's Christian Association, and the U.S. Army, promoting participation in the civilian defense program and explaining its operation, including such series as "Hasten the Day," "Sam at War," "We Have Met the Enemy," "Elwell's Weekly," "Yankee Doodle," and "Not for Glory" and episodes of the Burns and Allen and Vic and Sade shows, 1942-44 (190 items). Radio series relating to civil defense in England, 1943 (10 items).

Photographic Prints and Negatives: Civilian defense activities, including air raid precautions, equipment, personnel, insignia, uniforms, fire bombs, rescue operations, the Citizens Service Corps, the Civil Air Patrol, the Forest Fire Services, and activities in other countries, 1942-44 (G, 2,100 images D, N, 384 images). See also 171.9.

Filmstrips: Illustrating air raid warden training and other civilian defense activities, 1941-44 (FS, 9 items). See also 171.9.

Finding Aids: Box/folder list for photographic series G.

Related Records: Related photographs in RG 188, Records of the Office of Price Administration RG 44, Records of the Office of Government Reports RG 179, Records of the War Production Board and RG 208, Records of the Office of War Information, series N.

Subject Access Terms: Child care (photographs) conservation (photographs) nutrition (photographs) victory gardens (photographs).

171.4.9 Records of the Report Analysis and Statistics Division

Textual Records: General records, 1942-44. Statistical Bulletin of the Office of Civilian Defense, 1942-43. Processed digests of newspaper articles and reports relating to civilian defense, 1942-44. Working papers, completed questionnaires, and card records of defense councils, 1942-43.

171.4.10 Records of the Reports and Awards Office

Textual Records: Publications, issuances, and processed documents of the OCD, 1941-45. Records relating to insignia, 1941-44. Unpublished histories of OCD, 1944.

171.4.11 Records of the Library

Textual Records: Regional file, 1941-44, with indexes.

171.5 Records of OCD Region IX (AZ, CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA)
1940-44

History: OCD Administrative Order No. 1, July 10, 1941, established nine autonomous Regional Civilian Defense Areas, geographically coterminous with the War Department Corps Areas, to coordinate civilian defense activities and to provide liaison with state and local agencies, other federal agencies, and the military. Regional offices were abolished, effective July 1, 1944, by OCD Administrative Order No. 38, June 7, 1944. Subsequent regional functions of OCD were directed from Washington, DC, through small field offices composed of technical personnel. The National Archives disposed of records for regions I-VIII in 1962.

171.5.1 General records

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Correspondence of the Director, 1942-44.

Maps: Relating to distribution of civil defense equipment and facilities in Region IX the protective concealment of potential targets in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Sacramento the improvement of roads, sewers, and schools near industrial locations and emergency evacuation of urban areas, 1942-44 (422 items). See also 171.6.

171.5.2 Records of the Public Counsel Section

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records relating to publicity and public relations, 1942-43.

171.5.3 Records of the Administrative Division

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Central correspondence arranged by the Dewey Decimal System, 1941-42, and by a subject- numeric scheme, 1942-44, with separate central decimal files for each state and sector office, and for the Southern Land Frontier, and with a separate numeric file for the army and navy with indexes ("master card files") and filing schemes ("classification codes").

171.5.4 Records of the Protection Branch

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Records relating to camouflage, 1942-43. Camouflage and related surveys of the cities of San Francisco and San Jose, CA Contra Costa, Marin, and Santa Barbara Counties, CA and the States of California, Oregon, and Washington, 1942-43. Records relating to the Industrial Passive Defense Committee and the Rational Passive Defense Program, lighting control, protective construction, concealment (smoke and camouflage), civilian protection, and evacuation, 1942-43. Records of the Protection Division relating to air raid protection and fire defense, 1942-43. Emergency medical service and sanitary engineering files of the Medical Division, 1942-44. Property protection completed questionnaires, correspondence, and related blueprints and drawings received by the Los Angeles City Engineer and Area Camouflage Officer, November-December 1942 (in Los Angeles). Correspondence, drawings, and other records relating to the camouflage of property, 1942 (in Los Angeles). Confidential records of the Technical Section relating to work undertaken by the Los Angeles Technical Section Laboratory and Offices, 1942-43 (in Los Angeles).

Photographs and Other Media: Camouflage plans for industrial, military, and municipal sites in California, 1940-43 (T, 250 images). See also 171.9.

171.5.5 Records of the Civilian War Services Division

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Correspondence, issuances, and press clippings relating to volunteer civilian war service activities, including the Victory Garden Program, Food for Freedom drive, War Chest drive, and the Block Plan for Region IX, 1942-44. Bulletins of the California State War Council and the California State Defense Council, 1942-43. Records documenting civilian war service activities in CO and WY (Region VII), 1942- 43.

Photographs: "Service Star" show sponsored by the La Junta, CO, Civilian Defense Council, honoring the parents of military personnel, 1943 (L, 9 images). See also 171.9.

171.5.6 Records of the Joint Committee on Evacuation

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Evacuation plans and programs, 1941-44.

171.5.7 Records of the Northwest Sector Office (Seattle, WA)

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records concerning general protection programs, 1942-44. Records relating to lighting, facility security, emergency medical services, civilian war services, and evacuation, 1942-44.

171.5.8 Records of the Eastern Sector Office (Salt Lake City, UT)

Textual Records (in Denver): Central decimal correspondence, 1942-44.

171.5.9 Records of the Northern California-Nevada Sector Office
(San Francisco, CA)

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Central subject file, 1942- 43. General correspondence, 1942-43. Records relating to protection, 1942-43. Records relating to civilian war services, 1942-43.

171.5.10 Records of the Southern Sector Office (Pasadena, CA)

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Central subject file, 1942-43. General correspondence, 1942-44. General documents file, 1942. Records relating to protection programs, 1942-44 bomb reconnaissance schools, 1942-43 and camouflage schools, 1942. War disaster relief file, 1942-43. Minutes of the State and Federal Civilian Protection Officers Conference (San Francisco, CA), May 27-28, 1943. Records relating to state and local defense councils, 1942. Transportation training file, 1942-43. Los Angeles County War Council Bulletins, 1942-43.

171.6 Cartographic Records (General)
1941-45
111 items

Maps: United States, showing regional administrative boundaries, target communities for the purpose of allocating civil defense equipment, and locations of local air warning groups, 1941-45. Urban areas, relating to the location of industries and related schools, housing, and sanitary facilities, 1941-45.

171.7 Motion Pictures (General)

171.8 Sound Recordings (General)

171.9 Still Pictures (General)
1941-ca.1945 and n.d.

Photographs: Types of bombs, blackout methods, and defense against bombing and gas attacks in Detroit, n.d. (CDD, 79 items). Results of detonation tests on wall panels, steel plates, and air raid shelters at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 1941 (DT, 210 images).

Color Slides: OCD posters and publicity displays, n.d. (PDS, 50 images).

Lantern Slides: Proper methods and techniques for urban and industrial camouflage, field camouflage for military personnel, and proper blackout procedures, n.d. (CMT, PI, 255 images).

Posters: World War II posters accumulated by the Office of Civil Defense, ca. 1942 (PP, 282 images). Cartoons published by the Sloan Publishing Company and a drawing by Talburt submitted to the Office of Civilian Defense, ca. 1942 (PC, 4 images.) Calendars and instructional charts privately produced to support the war effort, ca. 1942 - ca. 1943 (PQ, 5 images). Posters advertising billboard posters, ca. 1942 - ca. 1943 (PO, 8 images). Instructional posters produced by the Office of Civilian Defense relating to air raids, 1942 (PG, 21 images). Posters produced by the British government during World War II, ca. 1940 - ca. 1945, (PB, 55 images).

See Photographs under 171.5.5.
See Photographs and Other Media under 171.5.4.
See Photographic Prints and Negatives under 171.4.8.
See Filmstrips under 171.4.8.
See Lantern Slides under 171.4.6.
See Lantern Slides and Transparencies under 171.4.6.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


Records of the U.S. Civil Service Commission [USCSC]

Established: As an independent agency by the Civil Service Act (22 Stat. 403), January 16, 1883.

Predecessor Agencies:

Abolished: Effective January 1, 1979, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978, pursuant to EO 12107, December 28, 1978, and the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 1111), October 13, 1978.

Successor Agencies: Office of Personnel Management, Merit Systems Protection Board, and Federal Labor Relations Authority.

Finding Aids: Preliminary Inventory in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records:
Record copies of publications of the U.S. Civil Service Commission in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the U.S. Senate, RG 46.
Records of the Office of Management and Budget, RG 51.
Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards, RG 220.
Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, RG 233.
Records of the Commissions on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, RG 264.
Records of the Office of Personnel Management, RG 478.
Records of the Merit Systems Protection Board, RG 479.

146.2 Records of the Grant Civil Service Commission
1871-75

History: An advisory board, popularly known as the Grant Civil Service Commission, established by President Ulysses S. Grant pursuant to an act of March 3, 1871 (16 Stat. 514), authorizing the President to prescribe rules and regulations for the civil service. Superseded by the U.S. Civil Service Commission, 1883. See 146.1.

Textual Records: Minutes of the commission, 1871-74. Reports, regulations, and rules of the commission, 1871-75. Examinations used by the Board of Examiners, Treasury Department, 1872-75.

146.3 Headquarters Records of the U.S. Civil Service Commission
1883-1981

146.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Minutes of the commission, 1883-1929. Case files containing correspondence and memorandums relating to precedent- setting decisions ("Precedent Minute Cases"), 1904-42, 1950. Letters sent by Commissioner John R. Proctor, 1896-98. Selected records of local Civil Service Boards of Examiners, 1883-1927. Legislative bills files, 1973. Records of Frank P. Sherwood, first director of the Federal Executive Institute, 1968-73. Correspondence relating to appointments, 1883-1906. Field operations letters of the Office of the Executive Director, 1954- 60. Records of the President's Committee on Fund Raising, 1956- 81. Voting Rights Act of 1965 program records, 1965-67.

146.3.2 Records of the Applications Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1895-1914, with index.

146.3.3 Records of the Personnel Classification Division

Textual Records: Samples of position allocation appeals dossiers, 1923-38. Personnel files for Ansel Adams relating to his employment to create a photographic mural for the Department of the Interior Building, 1941-42.

146.3.4 Records of the Bureau of Management Services

Textual Records: Policy and procedures files, 1913-53. Policy files, 1939-43. Records of the Office Services Division, consisting of organization and policy manual records, 1942-63 issuances relating to USCSC manual systems, 1943-66 and a reference collection of issuances, publications, and reports, 1904-66.

146.3.5 Records of the Bureau of Recruiting and Examining

Textual Records: Reports and memorandums relating to the President's Program on Youth Employment, 1970-73.

146.3.6 Records of the Fair Employment Board

Textual Records: Correspondence with agencies, 1948-54. Case files, 1948-55. Minutes of board meetings, 1948-55. Reports on complaints, 1950-54. Reports from agencies, 1949-54.

146.3.7 Records of the Communications Division

Textual Records: Case files relating to policy decisions rendered by the commissioners, 1898-1942.

146.3.8 Records of the Office Services Division

Textual Records: Records relating to civil service job examination specifications, 1941-60.

146.3.9 Records of the Bureau of Training

Textual Records: Reports and related records pertaining to Federal employee training, 1961-70.

146.4 Records of the Federal Personnel Council
1938-58

History: Council of Personnel Administration established, effective February 1, 1939, by EO 7916, June 24, 1938, as an interagency advisory group on personnel matters. Placed under USCSC by EO 8467, July 1, 1940. Redesignated Federal Personnel Council by EO 9830, February 24, 1947. Consisted of personnel directors of federal Executive departments and independent agencies, a representative of the Bureau of the Budget, and a representative of the USCSC. Abolished by the First Independent Offices Appropriation Act of 1954 (67 Stat. 300), July 31, 1953, with functions to Office of the Executive Director, USCSC. Superseded by Interagency Advisory Group, January 1954.

Federal Personnel Council established 21 field councils, 1943, expanded to more than 30 by 1953. Under jurisdiction of the Federal Personnel Council until its termination, 1953 thereafter administered by USCSC regional offices.

146.4.1 Central office records

Textual Records: Minutes, 1939-53. Council files, 1938-54. Project files, 1943-56. Committee files, 1946-55. Personnel survey responses, 1939. General records of Field Personnel Councils, 1943-58.

146.4.2 Records of Field Personnel Councils in USCSC Region 3
(Philadelphia, PA)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Correspondence, minutes, and other records of regional Personnel Council Committees in Hampton Roads, VA Richmond, VA Baltimore, MD Harrisburg, PA and Pittsburgh, PA, 1943-58.

146.4.3 Records of Field Personnel Councils in USCSC Region 9
(St. Louis, MO)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the St. Louis Field Personnel Council, consisting of minutes, 1943-57 correspondence and reports, 1943-53 committee records, 1948-50 and miscellaneous records, 1944-57. Minutes of Field Personnel Councils in Kansas City, MO St. Louis, MO Oklahoma City, OK Omaha, NE Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN and Wichita, KS, 1943-57.

146.5 Records of Regional Offices
1883-1980

History: USCSC established 12 district offices, 1905, with headquarters and jurisdictions as follows:

District Headquarters Jurisdiction
1 Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
2 New York, NY NJ (pt.), NY
3 Philadelphia, PA DE, NJ (pt.), PA
4 Washington, DC DC, MD, NC, VA, WV
5 Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, MS, SC, TN
6 Cincinnati, OH IN, KY, OH
7 Chicago, IL IL (pt.), MI, WI
8 St. Paul, MN IA, MN, NE, ND, SD
9 St. Louis, MO AR, IL (pt.), KS, MO, OK
10 New Orleans, LA LA, TX
11 Denver, CO CO, NM, WY
12 San Francisco, CA AZ, CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA

Districts 11 and 12 were realigned, July 1, 1910, with CO and NM transferring to District 12, and ID, MT, OR, UT, and WA moving to District 11. Seattle, WA, replaced Denver as headquarters of District 11.

A 13th district was established, 1920, with headquarters at Denver, and embracing CO, NM, UT, and WY.

District Headquarters Jurisdiction
1 Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
2 New York, NY NJ (pt.), NY
3 Philadelphia, PA DE, NJ (pt.), PA
4 Washington, DC DC, MD, NC, VA, WV
5 Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, MS, SC, TN
6 Cincinnati, OH IN, KY, OH
7 Chicago, IL IL (pt.), MI, WI
8 St. Paul, MN IA, MN, NE, ND, SD
9 St. Louis, MO AR, IL (pt.), KS, MO, OK
10 New Orleans, LA LA, TX
11 Seattle, WA ID, MT, OR, WA
12 San Francisco, CA AZ, CA, NV
13 Denver, CO CO, NM, UT, WY

The resulting system (with the addition of the territories of AK and HI to Districts 11 and 12 by 1935) remained stable until 1940, when jurisdiction over NJ and IL was consolidated in Districts 2 and 7, respectively.

Districts were redesignated as regions, 1943, and Winston-Salem, NC, replaced Washington as headquarters for Region 4:

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
1 Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
2 New York, NY NJ, NY
3 Philadelphia, PA DE, PA
4 Winston-Salem, NC DC, MD, NC, VA, WV
5 Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, SC, TN
6 Cincinnati, OH IN, KY, OH
7 Chicago, IL IL, MI, WI
8 St. Paul, MN IA, MN, NE, ND, SD
9 St. Louis, MO AR, KS, MO, OK
10 Dallas, TX LA, MS, TX
11 Seattle, WA AK, ID, MT, OR, WA
12 San Francisco, CA AZ, CA, HI, NV
13 Denver, CO CO, NM, UT, WY

A 14th region was established, 1946, with headquarters in Dallas and jurisdiction over TX. New Orleans was designated headquarters of Region 10 (LA and MS). Headquarters for Region 4 returned to Washington, DC, 1949.

Region 8 (St. Paul) was abolished, Regions 10 and 14 were consolidated, jurisdictions were realigned, and regions were renumbered, 1953:

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
1 Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
2 New York, NY NJ, NY
3 Philadelphia, PA DE, PA
4 Washington, DC DC, MD, NC, VA, WV
5 Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, MS, SC, TN
6 Cincinnati, OH IN, KY, OH
7 Chicago, IL IL, MI, WI
8 Dallas, TX AR, LA, OK, TX
9 St. Louis, MO IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, ND, SD
10 Denver, CO AZ, CO, NM, UT, WY
11 Seattle, WA AK, ID, MT, OR, WA
12 San Francisco, CA CA, HI, NV

Region 4 was abolished, 1954. Regions were realigned, but not renumbered:

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
1 Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
2 New York, NY NJ, NY
3 Philadelphia, PA DE, MD, PA, VA
5 Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN
6 Cincinnati, OH IN, KY, OH, WV
7 Chicago, IL IL, MI, WI
8 Dallas, TX AR, LA, OK, TX
9 St. Louis, MO IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, ND, SD
10 Denver, CO AZ, CO, NM, UT, WY
11 Seattle, WA AK, ID, MT, OR, WA
12 San Francisco, CA CA, HI, NV

Region 6 was abolished, January 2, 1962, with WV to Region 3 and other states to Region 7. Regional numbers were discontinued, March 1962, and regions were designated by the city in which the regional headquarters was located:

Regional Office Jurisdiction
Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN
Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
Chicago, IL IL, IN, KY, MI, OH, WI
Denver, CO AZ, CO, NM, UT, WY
Dallas, TX AR, LA, OK, TX
New York, NY NJ, NY
Philadelphia, PA DE, MD, PA, VA, WV
St. Louis, MO IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, ND, SD
San Francisco, CA CA, HI, NV
Seattle, WA AK, ID, MT, OR, WA

KY transferred to the Atlanta Regional Office, MN to the Chicago Regional Office, and MT, ND, and SD to the Denver Regional Office, 1971. These changes brought the USCSC regions into geographical conformity with the standard federal regions.

USCSC adopted standard federal region numbers, 1973:

Region Headquarters Jurisdiction
1 Boston, MA CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT
2 New York, NY NJ, NY
3 Philadelphia, PA DE, MD, PA, VA, WV
4 Atlanta, GA AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN
5 Chicago, IL IL, IN, KY, MI, OH, WI
6 St. Louis, MO IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, ND, SD
7 Dallas, TX AR, LA, OK, TX
8 Denver, CO AZ, CO, NM, UT, WY
9 San Francisco, CA CA, HI, NV
10 Seattle, WA AK, ID, MT, OR, WA

146.5.1 Records of Region 2 (New York, NY)

History: Established as District 2, with headquarters in New York and jurisdiction over NY and northern counties of NJ, 1905. Acquired jurisdiction over southern NJ from District 3 (Philadelphia), 1940. Redesignated Region 2, 1943. Redesignated New York Regional Office, 1962. Redesignated Region 2, 1973.

Textual Records (in New York): Records of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, including letters sent to the USCSC, 1898- 1905 minutes of meetings, 1898-1908 letters sent and received, Customs Examining Board, New York, 1898-1903 and examination questions and keys, 1891-1910. Records of the Office of the Regional Director, consisting of records of memberships of local civil service boards, 1961. Lists of naturalization certificates, 1905-6.

146.5.2 Records of Region 3 (Philadelphia, PA)

History: Established as District 3, with headquarters in Philadelphia and jurisdiction over DE, southern counties of NJ, and PA, 1905. Jurisdiction over NJ consolidated under District 2 (New York), 1940. Redesignated Region 3, 1943. Acquired MD and VA from abolished Region 4 (Washington), 1954, and WV from abolished Region 6 (Cincinnati), 1962. Redesignated Philadelphia Regional Office, 1962. Redesignated Region 3, 1973.

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): USCSC local board membership cards, 1902-64. Records of the Program Division relating to the merit program, 1949-71.

Related Records: Records of Field Personnel Councils in Region 3 described under 146.4.2.

146.5.3 Records of (old) Region 4 (Washington, DC)

History: Established as District 4, with headquarters in Washington and jurisdiction over DC, MD, NC, VA, and WV, 1905. Redesignated Region 4, 1943, with headquarters transferred to Winston-Salem, NC. Headquarters transferred back to Washington, 1949. Abolished, with MD and VA to Region 3 (Philadelphia), NC to Region 5 (Atlanta), and WV to Region 6 (Cincinnati), 1954.

Textual Records: Letters sent by District Secretary Louis Fisher, 1906-7.

146.5.4 Records of (new) Region 4 (Atlanta, GA)

History: Established as District 5, with headquarters in Atlanta and jurisdiction over AL, FL, GA, MS, SC, and TN, 1905. Redesignated Region 5, 1943, with MS to Region 10 (Dallas). Reacquired jurisdiction over MS, 1953. Acquired NC from abolished Region 4 (Washington), 1954. Redesignated Atlanta Regional Office, 1962. Redesignated Region 4, 1973.

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Press copies of letters sent by the Board of Civil Service Examiners, Columbia, SC, 1897-1904. Records of intergovernmental personnel programs under the Comprehensive Employment Training Act (CETA), including state merit system files and CETA authorities, policies, and procedures manual, 1971-80 and personnel action plans, nonfederal merit system reviews, and records relating to exemptions requested for certain positions in the Kentucky state government, 1975-80.

146.5.5 Records of (new) Region 5 (Chicago, IL)

History: Established as District 7, with headquarters in Chicago and jurisdiction over northern IL, MI, and WI, 1905. Acquired jurisdiction over southern IL from Region 9 (St. Louis), 1940. Redesignated Region 7, 1943. Acquired IN, KY, and OH from abolished Region 6, 1962. Redesignated Chicago Regional Office, 1962. Redesignated Region 5, 1973.

Textual Records (in Chicago, except as noted): Letters received from Theodore Roosevelt, Acting President (Chairman), USCSC, 1893-95 (in Washington Area). Minutes of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, Port Huron, MI, 1883-97. Examination records of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, Janesville, WI, 1893- 1927. Issuances, 1949-65. Community review program files from various midwestern cities, 1963-69.

146.5.6 Records of (old) Region 6 (Cincinnati, OH)

History: Established as District 6, with headquarters in Cincinnati and jurisdiction over IN, KY, and OH, 1905. Redesignated Region 6, 1943. Acquired WV from abolished Region 4 (Washington), 1954. Abolished, with WV to Region 3 (Philadelphia), and IL, KY, and OH to Region 7 (Chicago), 1962.

Textual Records (in Chicago): Examination records of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, Indianapolis, IN, 1883-1927.

146.5.7 Records of (new) Region 6 (St. Louis, MO)

History: Established as District 9, with headquarters in St. Louis and jurisdiction over AR, southern IL, KS, MO, and OK, 1905. Jurisdiction over IL consolidated under District 7 (Chicago), 1940. Redesignated Region 9, 1943. Acquired IA, MN, NE, ND, and SD from abolished Region 8 (St. Paul), 1953. Redesignated St. Louis Regional Office, 1962. Jurisdiction over MN transferred to Chicago Regional Office, and ND and SD to Denver Regional Office, 1971. Redesignated Region 6, 1973.

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Circular letters, 1912-45. Circulars pertaining to position classification activities, personnel, recruiting authority, retirement of Civil Service employees, and medical activities, 1923-55. Bulletins, 1942-55. Minutes of "A" conferences, 1943-48. Issuances, 1912-69. List of major field establishments, ca. 1954. Records relating to World War II emergency activities, consisting of national defense circulars, 1940-41 employment stabilization circulars and briefs, 1943 occupation deferment circulars, 1942 Pearl Harbor recruiting memorandums, 1942-44 and investigation circulars, 1942-45.

Related Records: Records of Field Personnel Councils in Region 9 (St. Louis) described under 146.4.3.

146.5.8 Records of (old) Region 8 (St. Paul, MN)

History: Established as District 8, with headquarters in St. Paul and jurisdiction over IA, MN, NE, ND, and SD, 1905. Redesignated Region 8, 1943. Abolished, with states transferred to Region 9 (St. Louis), 1953.

Textual Records (in Chicago): Letters and minutes of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, Duluth, MN, 1893-1927.

146.5.9 Records of (new) Region 9 (San Francisco, CA)

History: Established as District 12, with headquarters in San Francisco and jurisdiction over AZ, CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, and WA, 1905. In realignment of 1910, ID, MT, OR, UT, and WA transferred to District 11 (Seattle), and CO and NM moved from District 11 to District 12. Jurisdiction over CO and NM transferred to new Region 13 (Denver), 1920. HI, administered locally by Honolulu Board of Civil Service Examiners, assigned to District 12 by 1935. Redesignated Region 12, 1943. AZ assigned to Region 10 (Denver), 1953. Redesignated San Francisco Regional Office, 1962. Redesignated Region 9, 1973.

Textual Records (in San Francisco , except as noted): Records of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, consisting of letters sent, 1893-97 and (in Washington Area) 1905-7 and minutes of meetings, 1883-97. Letters received from Civil Service Commissioners, 1895- 1902. Minutes and orders of the district office, 1890-1906. District office scrapbook, 1902-5. Correspondence and reports regarding the naval recruiting program, 1943. Recruiting reports, 1940-42. Monthly work reports, 1942.

146.5.10 Records of (new) Region 10 (Seattle, WA)

History: Established as District 11, with headquarters in Denver and jurisdiction over CO, NM, and WY, 1905. In realignment of 1910, acquired jurisdiction over ID, MT, OR, UT, and WA from District 12 (San Francisco), transferred CO and NM to District 12, and moved headquarters from Denver to Seattle. Jurisdiction over WY transferred to new Region 13 (Denver), 1920. AK assigned to District 11 by 1935. Redesignated Region 11, 1943. Redesignated Seattle Regional Office, 1962. Jurisdiction over MT transferred to Denver Regional Office, 1971. Redesignated Region 10, 1973.

Textual Records (in Seattle): Historical file relating to applicants for civil service positions who were tested by examiners in Butte, MT Denver, CO Portland, OR and Tacoma, WA, 1890-1931, including rosters of eligibles books of stub certificates giving scores of applicants, name of position, and name of candidate selected, for Tacoma, WA, 1903-4, and Portland, OR and press copy books for Denver, CO, 1890-1907, Butte, MT, 1901-26, and Portland, OR, 1891-98, 1903-4.

146.6 Motion Pictures (General)
1915, 1935-69

Thomas Edison's Won Through Merit, on the history of the merit system, 1915 (1 reel). Documentaries, television programs, speeches, interviews, and films of conferences and meetings, produced or acquired by the Office of Public Affairs 1935-69 (33 reels), including Working for the U.S.A., The Highest Honor, America at Work, and Labor of Love an address by Vice President Hubert Humphrey at the 1965 Youth Opportunity Conference speeches by USCSC Chairman John Macy American Broadcasting Company's Perspective (1952) and selected programs (1953-69) on the civil service from the Georgetown University Forum series.

146.7 Sound recordings (General)
1935-65

Speeches and programs relating to USCSC policies and activities, 1935-65 (11 items).

146.8 Machine-Readable Records (General)
1973-77

Central Personnel Data File (CPDF), with supporting documentation, 1973-77 (19 data sets).

146.9 Still Pictures (General)
1938-ca.1977

Photographic Prints and Negatives: Photographs documenting the variety of jobs available to employees in the Federal Government in the Washington, DC, area, and candidates taking the Civil Service Examination, 1939-48 (FJ, 501 images). U.S. Civil Service Commission activities and personnel, 1938-54 (MA, 125 images).

Photographic Negatives: Subject file of U.S. Civil Service Commission activities and personnel, 1966-72 (SP, 850 images).

Color Slides: Slide show presentation entitled "An Inventive Bunch" highlighting the technological and social contributions made by Federal employees, ca. 1977 (IB, 80 images).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


From Agency to Administration

President Johnson, concerned about the lack of a coordinated transportation system, believed a single department was needed to develop and carry out comprehensive transportation policies and programs across all transportation modes. In 1966, Congress authorized the creation of a cabinet department that would combine major federal transportation responsibilities. This new Department of Transportation (DOT ) began full operations on April l, 1967. On that day, the Federal Aviation Agency became one of several modal organizations within DOT and received a new name, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA ). At the same time, CAB's accident investigation function was transferred to the new National Transportation Safety Board.


Watch the video: Τμήμα Ιστορίας Αρχαιολογίας Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο


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