March 15, 2017 Day 55 of the First Year - History

March 15, 2017 Day 55 of the First Year - History


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10:50AM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route to Joint Base Andrews

South Lawn

11:00AM Background Briefing Previewing the President’s Budget with OMB Director Mick Mulvaney

White House Briefing Room

11:10AM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews en route to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport

Joint Base Andrews

12:35PM THE PRESIDENT arrives at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport

Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport

1:40PM THE PRESIDENT tours American Manufactured Vehicles

American Center for Mobility

1:55PM THE PRESIDENT leads a roundtable with CEOs and Union workers

American Center for Mobility

2:20PM THE PRESIDENT makes remarks at the American Center for Mobility

American Center for Mobility

3:30PM THE PRESIDENT departs Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport en route to Nashville International Airport

Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport

CDT

3:55PM THE PRESIDENT arrives at Nashville International Airport

Nashville International Airport

4:25PM THE PRESIDENT tours Andrew Jackson’s Hermitage

The Hermitage

4:50PM THE PRESIDENT participates in a wreath laying ceremony

The Hermitage

5:15PM THE PRESIDENT makes remarks at the Hermitage

The Hermitage

6:30PM THE PRESIDENT participates in a Make America Great Again Rally

Municipal Auditorium

Open Press

8:00PM THE PRESIDENT departs Nashville International Airport en route to Joint Base Andrews

Nashville International Airport

EDT

10:45PM THE PRESIDENT arrives at the White House


5 Caesar Facts To Be Aware Of On The Ides Of March

It is March 15, a day known in antiquity as the Ides of March. From 44 BCE onward, it would also be remembered as the day that Gaius Julius Caesar was assassinated. Here are a few facts you may not be aware of on this infamous day.

Members of the 'Gruppo Storico Romano' (Roman historian group) take part in a historical . [+] reconstitution of the assassination of Julius Caesar by a group of conspirators led by Brutus. On March 15, 2016 in Rome. (ALBERTO PIZZOLI/AFP/Getty Images)

5. The Ides Is Not Always On The 15th Of The Month

In the Roman calendar, there were three component parts of every month: the Kalendae or Kalends was the first of the month, the Nonae which came nine days before the Ides and the Idus. The Ides of March, May, July and October fall on the 15th, and on every other month they were on the 13th. Thus in April, the Ides will fall on the 13th. Romans counted inclusively, so the Nones could be on the 7th or the 5th.

The Pre-Julian Republican calendar as preserved in a reconstruction of the Fasti Antiates Maiores . [+] with the Ides of March underlined. Painted calendar from the beginning of the 1st century BCE. The original is now in Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo). Image via Wikimedia.

Image via Wikimedia and is in the Public Domain.

4. Julius Caesar Was Not Stabbed In The Main Roman Senate House In The Forum

When you walk through the Roman Forum today, the main Curia (Senate House) is distinctive as one of the most imposing structures within it. Diocletian later rebuilt this version of the senate house, called the Curia Julia. However, the Curia Julia was not finished by the Ides of March in 44 BCE it wouldn't be completed until the reign of Augustus. Many tourists point it out as the place where Caesar was stabbed, but this event actually happened in a small area near the Circus Flaminius and the Tiber called the Curia Pompeia, within the Theater of Pompey's complex. Meetings of the senate were not always held in the main senate house in the forum. The legal and religious stipulation was simply that the senate meet in a consecrated space and thus there were a number of curiae within the city of Rome.

Photo of the Curia Julia in the Roman Forum, as reconstructed by Diocletian in the 3rd century CE . [+] and then later added onto by Theodoric. In the early middle ages, it was turned into a consecrated Church, which preserved the structure quite well until Mussolini rebuilt it in the early 20th century as a symbol of his Roman renaissance.

3. The Place Where Caesar Was Stabbed Is Now A Cat Sanctuary

The place where we believe Caesar was stabbed is now populated by a number of cats. Torre Argentina is a sunken area not far from the Pantheon, and many stop to look at the gatti that inhabit the space. Last time I was there, I counted 23 cats in this small area, but I am told there are around 150. You can now "adopt" one of these sacred cats that walk around the ruins. A group of dedicated Romans provide them with healthcare, love and food every day.

Cats chill in Largo di Torre Argentina in Rome. You can even do a distant adoption of these cats . [+] through the Torre Argentina Cat Sanctuary's foundation.

Image via Wikimedia under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

2. They Often Do Recreations Of Caesar Being Stabbed Every March 15

You can tune in today and watch Roman archaeologist Darius Arya walk around the site where we think Caesar was killed by his assassins. At 9:00 a.m. and then 10:30 a.m. (Eastern), Dr. Arya will be Periscoping the experience and live-streaming it on YouTube.

1. Caesar Was Probably Killed Around 1 p.m.

Last year, I made a timetable of the events leading up to Caesar's death and tried to reconstruct it hour-by-hour. According to the ancient sources, Caesar died near the 7th hour of the day, perhaps around 1 p.m.

An hour-by-hour reconstruction of the death of Caesar on the Ides of March, 44 BCE.

Graphic is by Sarah E. Bond

Well, friends, Romans, and blog readers, I hope you have enjoyed some more details about the death of one of history's greatest villains and heroes. I should note that the best book-length analysis of this event is by Cornell ancient historian Barry Strauss and is called The Death of Caesar: The Story of History’s Most Famous Assassination. Go forth and regale your friends with tales of Roman antiquity today, but don't forget to get your facts straight first.


April Fools' Day: Origin and History

Related Links

April Fools' Day, sometimes called All Fools' Day, is one of the most light-hearted days of the year. Its origins are uncertain. Some see it as a celebration related to the turn of the seasons, while others believe it stems from the adoption of a new calendar.

New Year's Day Moves

Ancient cultures, including those of the Romans and Hindus, celebrated New Year's Day on or around April 1. It closely follows the vernal equinox (March 20th or March 21st.) In medieval times, much of Europe celebrated March 25, the Feast of Annunciation, as the beginning of the new year.

In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII ordered a new calendar (the Gregorian Calendar) to replace the old Julian Calendar. The new calendar called for New Year's Day to be celebrated Jan. 1. That year, France adopted the reformed calendar and shifted New Year's day to Jan. 1. According to a popular explanation, many people either refused to accept the new date, or did not learn about it, and continued to celebrate New Year's Day on April 1. Other people began to make fun of these traditionalists, sending them on "fool's errands" or trying to trick them into believing something false. Eventually, the practice spread throughout Europe.

Problems With This Explanation

There are at least two difficulties with this explanation. The first is that it doesn't fully account for the spread of April Fools' Day to other European countries. The Gregorian calendar was not adopted by England until 1752, for example, but April Fools' Day was already well established there by that point. The second is that we have no direct historical evidence for this explanation, only conjecture, and that conjecture appears to have been made more recently.

Constantine and Kugel

Another explanation of the origins of April Fools' Day was provided by Joseph Boskin, a professor of history at Boston University. He explained that the practice began during the reign of Constantine, when a group of court jesters and fools told the Roman emperor that they could do a better job of running the empire. Constantine, amused, allowed a jester named Kugel to be king for one day. Kugel passed an edict calling for absurdity on that day, and the custom became an annual event.

"In a way," explained Prof. Boskin, "it was a very serious day. In those times fools were really wise men. It was the role of jesters to put things in perspective with humor."

This explanation was brought to the public's attention in an Associated Press article printed by many newspapers in 1983. There was only one catch: Boskin made the whole thing up. It took a couple of weeks for the AP to realize that they'd been victims of an April Fools' joke themselves.

Spring Fever

It is worth noting that many different cultures have had days of foolishness around the start of April, give or take a couple of weeks. The Romans had a festival named Hilaria on March 25, rejoicing in the resurrection of Attis. The Hindu calendar has Holi, and the Jewish calendar has Purim. Perhaps there's something about the time of year, with its turn from winter to spring, that lends itself to lighthearted celebrations.

Observances Around the World

April Fools' Day is observed throughout the Western world. Practices include sending someone on a "fool's errand," looking for things that don't exist playing pranks and trying to get people to believe ridiculous things.

The French call April 1 Poisson d'Avril, or "April Fish." French children sometimes tape a picture of a fish on the back of their schoolmates, crying "Poisson d'Avril" when the prank is discovered


A Brief, 500-Year History of Guam

That Guam once again finds itself in the crosshairs of foreign adversaries is nothing new. It was 500 years ago, in 1521, when Ferdinand Magellan’s ships, weary and hungry, pulled up to this island, beginning 300 years of Spanish conquest. Nowadays most Americans, if they know of Guam at all, think of this and neighboring Saipan as sites of World War II battles. It was from neighboring Tinian that the Enola Gay took off to drop the bomb on Hiroshima. And as is always the case in these struggles between external powers, the presence of the Chamorro, the indigenous peoples of the islands, is lost.

Most Americans likely have some inkling that Guam exists and is somehow American. Few know how or why. While geographically, Guam is among the Mariana Islands, so named by Spanish missionaries in 1668, it is a separate U.S. territory from the Northern Mariana Islands, which is technically a commonwealth. Guam remains on the United Nations list of 17 non-self-governing territories—colonies, that, under the U.N. charter, should be de-colonized. It’s “American soil,” but the residents do not have full American citizenship, and cannot vote in presidential elections. They have a non-voting representative to Congress.

In 2002, I conducted community-based research in the southern village of Inarahan (Inalahan in Chamorro). The project, Pacific Worlds, is an indigenous-geography cultural documentation and education project, sponsored by Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL). Later I did a similar project in Tanapag village on nearby Saipan, part of the Northern Mariana Islands, and published a paper about the history of colonialism (American, in particular) in the region.

I do not speak for the Chamorro people, but as a scholar of colonialism and indigeneity, who was taught directly by the people who shared their lives with me. The full community study, with maps, photos and illustrations, can be found here, but given the current circumstances, a short history is merited.

People arriving from islands off Southeast Asia, most likely Taiwan, settled Guam and the Marianas more than 4,000 years ago. One could sail west-to-east from the Philippines to the Marianas just by following the sun. A clan-based society arose by 800 A.D. that included villages characterized by impressive latte houses, one-story houses set atop rows of two-piece stone columns these were still in use as late as 1668. Archaeological evidence indicates rice cultivation and pottery making prior to European arrival in the 16th century. By then, the Chamorros had developed a complex, class-based matrilineal society based on fishing and agriculture, supplemented by occasional trade visits from Caroline Islanders.

Large signs draw attention to park units along Marine Corps Drive, heading south from Hagåtña and ending at the base of the Commander, U.S. Naval Forces (Doug Herman) Map of the Spanish Galleon route (Doug Herman) The church still dominates the landscape of the quiet village of Inarajan on the southern coast. (Doug Herman) Changing demographic structure on Guam, 1920-2000. The post-war influx of white Americans is clearly visible, then the influx of Filipinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders. (Data from U.S. Census) Population of Guam by place of birth, showing the growth of immigrants as a percentage of the overall population. (Data from U.S. Census) Spanish-influenced Chamorros (left) and Carolinians (right) on Saipan. (CNMI Historic Preservation Office) Map of Guam (Doug Herman)

The Mariana Islands proved not terribly useful to the Spanish. “Magellan’s view of the world as a Portuguese Catholic in the early 1500s did not help the encounter,” explains Anne Perez Hattori, a Chamorro historian at the University of Guam. “On seeing the Chamorros, he did not view them as his equals…. He definitely viewed them as pagans, as savages…. [T]he Chamorros took things. And then because of that, Magellan calls the islands the ‘Islands of Thieves.’"

Magellan's characterization of the Chamorros as "thieves," discouraged further European  intrusion and while some ships still visited, the Chamorros lived in relative isolation for the next century or so. The nearby Philippines, where traders found an entryway to the Chinese market, attracted most of the seafarers from abroad.

That all changed when an aggressive Jesuit missionary, Father San Vitores, arrived in the Marianas in 1668. Relations were tense with occasional violence. In 1672, San Vitores secretly baptized the infant daughter of a local chief, Matå‘pang, against the chief’s wishes, a last straw that ended with San Vitories' death.

His death was the turning point that transformed this hitherto-ignored Spanish outpost into a subjugated Spanish colony.

“After San Vitores dies, the military took over the mission, so it became really a war of subjugation,” Hattori says. Twenty-six years of Spanish-Chamorro wars ensued that, along with introduced diseases, decimated the population. By 1700, just 5,000 Chamorrossome 10 percent of their former number—remained.

A clan-based society arose by 800 A.D. that included villages characterized by impressive latte houses, one-story houses set atop rows of two-piece stone columns. (happyfish70/Flickr)

The Spanish then began transporting Chamorros from the northern islands to Guam, where they could control them—a process that took nearly a century, as the fast native canoes could outrun the larger and slower Spanish ships and elude capture. Canoe culture was then banned to keep them from escaping.

Once on Guam, the Chamorros were resettled into newly created villages, each under the watchful eye of a Spanish priest. And so began the assimilation of the Chamorros. They lost their millennia-old connections to the land, their traditions and their stories. Today, the Chamorro language retains its traditional grammar, but 55 percent of the vocabulary borrows from Spanish.

Nonetheless, indigenous culture continued in other ways—in values, in traditions surrounding weddings and funerals, in housing styles, and many other forms not obvious to the outsider. Small-island living requires a system of codes and practices, evolved over millennia, which no outside culture can replace, even today.

The Spanish maintained a lazy rule over the islands for the next century and a half. The northern islands were off limits, until typhoon-devastated Caroline Islanders arrived from the south—as was their traditional practice—looking for temporary shelter around 1815. The Spanish governor settled them on Saipan, where they still live alongside of—if not intermarried with—Chamorros who were allowed to return there in the mid-19th century.

The Spanish empire was approaching its twilight years by the time the United States acquired California from Mexico in 1848, an era when the ideology of “manifest destiny” justified aggressive American expansion.

By 1898, with the Spanish-American War, the nation’s ambitions expanded beyond the U.S. continent, and extended American “Indian-hating” to the far western Pacific.

The Spanish troops and officials stationed in Guam were at first glad to have visitors when the USS Charleston arrived. They didn’t know that war had been declared between the two nations, and mistook their cannon fire for a salute. A peaceful transfer of power ensued.

The 1898 Treaty of Paris between Spain and the U.S. would later formalize the handover of Guam. The reason why Guam remains a U.S. territory, while the rest of Micronesia is not, can be traced to an ironic accident of history and geography. The American negotiators neglected to inquire about the Spanish claims to the rest of the Marianas and much more of Micronesia, and Spain quickly sold these other islands to Germany. Thus began a rift between the Chamorros of Guam and those of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Guam has persisted under American rule to the present day, while the northern islands experienced first almost two decades of benign German rule, then nearly three decades under the thumb of the Japanese empire, which took all of Germany’s Pacific territories at the outset of World War I.

Right after the U.S takeover, the leading families of Guam met and established a legislature in anticipation of a democratic, representative government. To their surprise, the island was instead placed under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Navy, and was ruled by a series of military governors who, though generally benign, wielded absolute authority. The Navy maintained the islandboth physically and discursivelyas an essential American forward base, and under their administrations, Guam was run like a well-ordered battleship under what was essentially martial law.

In a series of Supreme Court rulings known as the Insular Cases of 1901, it was decided that new territories might never be incorporated into the union and were to receive only unspecified ‘‘fundamental’’ Constitutional protections. They were to be governed without the consent of the governed in a system that lacked the checks and balances that underlie the principle of limited government.

As one legal scholar noted in 1903, the new insular possessions became “real dependenciesterritories inhabited by a settled population differing from us in race and civilization to such an extent that assimilation seems impossible.” With these newly acquired lands, the U.S. became an empire in the manner of Britain, France and Germany. The contradiction of a “free,” “democratic” country holding colonies unfolded powerfully on Guam over the ensuing century.

The Chamorros persisted in their pursuit of democracy, sometimes with moderate support from the naval governors, sometimes not, but always without success.

As late as 1936, two Guam delegates, Baltazar J. Bordallo and Francisco B. Leon Guerrero, went to Washington to petition in person for Chamorro citizenship.

They were positively received by President Franklin Roosevelt and by members of Congress. But the Navy convinced the federal government to reject the petition. As Penelope Bordallo-Hofschneider writes in her book A Campaign for Political Rights on the Island of Guam, 1899-1950, the Navy cited, among other things, “the racial problems of that locality” and asserted that “these people have not yet reached a state of development commensurate with the personal independence, obligations, and responsibilities of United States citizenship.”

While the bombing of Pearl Harbor still lives on in infamy in American memory, the bombing of Guam—four hours later—is virtually forgotten. In a brief but locally well-remembered air and sea attack, Japanese troops seized control of the small American colony and began an occupation that lasted three years. More than 13,000  American subjects suffered injury, forced labor, forced march or internment. A local priest, Father Jesus Baza Dueñas, was  tortured and assassinated . At least 1,123 died. To America, they are forgotten.

The battle to re-conquer Guam from the Japanese, however, does stand out, at least for war buffs. The National Park Service commemorated it with a park spanning seven different locations. It virtually dominates the landscape. It was not until 1993, with the 50th anniversary of the liberation approaching, that Congress was moved by Guam’s congressional representative, Robert Underwood, to overtly recognize the suffering of the Chamorros. Public Law 103-197 authorized construction of a monument to commemorate, by individual names, those people of Guam who suffered during the occupation.

In his book Cultures of Commemoration: The Politics of War, Memory and History in the Mariana Islands, Chamorro scholar Keith Camacho remarks that in military narratives of World War II’s Pacific theater, Pacific Islanders play no central role. Instead, military historians tend to envision the Pacific Islands as “a tabula rasa on which to inscribe their histories of heroism and victimization,” forming “a body of discourse in which only Japanese and Americans constitute the agents of change and continuity in the region, erasing the agency and voice of indigenous peoples.”

Whatever happens with North Korea, which has threatened to attack Guam with a nuclear weapon, let us not forget that Guam and its fellow Mariana Islands are a locus of indigenous peoples, culture, history and traditional civilization. This is not just a U.S. military base, but a place with a long history and deep cultural roots, whose “American” people have striven for democracy for over a century, and still don’t have it.

About Doug Herman

Doug Herman, formerly a senior geographer at the National Museum of the American Indian, specializes in the cultural knowledge of Hawaii and Pacific Islands. He is now the executive director of the Waioli Corporation in Kaua'i


Quotes Suitable for International Women's Day

Gloria Steinem
“Feminism has never been about getting a job for one woman. It's about making life more fair for women everywhere. It's not about a piece of the existing pie there are too many of us for that. It's about baking a new pie.”

Robert Burns
“While Europe's eye is fix'd on mighty things,
The fate of empires and the fall of kings
While quacks of State must each produce his plan,
And even children lisp the Rights of Man
Amid this mighty fuss just let me mention,
The Rights of Woman merit some attention.”

Mona Eltahawy
“Misogyny has not been completely wiped out anywhere. Rather, it resides on a spectrum, and our best hope for eradicating it globally is for each of us to expose and to fight against local versions of it, in the understanding that by doing so we advance the global struggle.”

Audre Lorde
“I am not free while any woman is unfree, even when her shackles are very different from my own.”

Variously Attributed
"Well behaved women rarely make history."


By the Numbers

15 – the date on which the Ides fall in the months of March, May, July, and October.

2003 – the year in which actress Thora Hird died on the Ides of March.

1970 – the year the song ‘Vehicle’ was released by rock band The Ides Of March.

2001 – the year the movie “The Ides Of March” was released.

60 – the number of senators present at the time of Caesar’s assassination.

23 – the number of stab wounds on Julius Caesar.

1971 – the year in which the “Ed Sullivan Show” was cancelled on Ides Of March.


‘White Europe’: 60,000 nationalists march on Poland’s independence day

Tens of thousands of nationalist demonstrators marched through Warsaw at the weekend to mark Poland’s independence day, throwing red-smoke bombs and carrying banners with slogans such as “white Europe of brotherly nations”.

Police estimated 60,000 people took part in Saturday’s event, in what experts say was one of the biggest gathering of far-right activists in Europe in recent years.

Demonstrators with faces covered chanted “Pure Poland, white Poland!” and “Refugees get out!”

The march organised by far-right groups in Poland is an annual event originally to mark Poland’s independence in 1918. But according to Nick Lowles, from UK anti-extremism group Hope Not Hate, it has become an important rallying point for international far-right groups.

“The numbers attending this year seem to be bigger and, while not everyone on the march is a far-right activist or fascist, it is undoubtedly becoming more significant and is acting as a magnet for far-right groups around the world.”

Far-right marchers brandish banners depicting a red falanga, a far-right symbol dating from the 1930s. Photograph: Janek Skarżyński/AFP/Getty Images

Some participants marched under the slogan “We Want God!”, words from an old Polish religious song that the US president, Donald Trump, quoted during a visit to Warsaw earlier this year. Speakers encouraged attendants to stand against liberals and defending Christian values.

Many carried the national white-and-red flag while others held banners depicting a falanga, a far-right symbol dating to the 1930s. A demonstrator interviewed by state television TVP said he was on the march to “remove Jewry from power”.

Among the far-right leaders attending the march was the former English Defence League leader Stephen Lennon, better known as Tommy Robinson, and Roberto Fiore from Italy. It also attracted a considerable number of supporters of Poland’s governing conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party.

TVP, which reflects the conservative government’s line, called it a “great march of patriots”, and in its broadcasts described the event as one that drew mostly ordinary Poles expressing their love of Poland, not extremists.

“It was a beautiful sight,” the interior minister, Mariusz Błaszczak, said. “We are proud that so many Poles have decided to take part in a celebration connected to the Independence Day holiday.”

The march was one of many events marking Poland’s independence in 1918, when the country regained its sovereignty at the end of the first world war after being partitioned and ruled since the late 18th century by Russia, Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian empire.

Polish nationalists carry a banner translating to ‘We want God!’ during a march in Warsaw. Photograph: Jacek Turczyk/EPA

A smaller counter-protest by an anti-fascist movement took place on Saturday where, although organisers tried to keep the two groups apart, nationalists pushed and kicked several women who had a banner saying “Stop fascism” and chanted anti-fascist slogans.

“I’m shocked that they’re allowed to demonstrate on this day. It’s 50 to 100,000 mostly football hooligans hijacking patriotism,” said a 50-year-old Briton, Andy Eddles, a language teacher who has been living in Poland for 27 years. “For me it’s important to support the anti-fascist coalition and to support fellow democrats, who are under pressure in Poland today.”


The first Starbucks coffee shop, Seattle - a history of cities in 50 buildings, day 36

When the now-infamous chain first opened its doors in Seattle on 30 March 1971, its sign bore not a green mermaid but a (more anatomically detailed) brown one, and its mission was purely to sell freshly roasted coffee beans

Last modified on Wed 23 Sep 2020 15.31 BST

With more than 21,500 stores in 64 countries and territories, the Starbucks coffee chain has enjoyed the image of omnipresence for so long that jokes about walking across the street from one branch straight into another have themselves become clichéd. In certain cities, it’s simply the reality: Seattle, for instance, where the now universally recognised green mermaid got her humble start.

But when the very first Starbucks opened on 30 March 1971, its sign bore not a green mermaid but a brown one — and a more anatomically detailed one at that. Founders Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl and Gordon Bowker (friends from the University of San Francisco, all instructed in the art of roasting by Peet’s Coffee and Tea founder Alfred Peet) drew the theme of their new coffee company from nautical mythology, commissioning that first version of the company’s signature siren and picking a name out of Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick – “Starbucks” having narrowly pipped the second-place contender, “Pequod”.

You can still see Starbucks’ original mermaid, baring her breasts and spreading her tails, on the window of the “original Starbucks” (actually the second location of the original Starbucks, to which it moved in 1977) at Seattle’s tourist-beloved Pike Place market. A site of pilgrimage for Starbucks habitués the world over, the store offers not just all the drinks on the company’s modern menu — from normal coffee and espresso to chai tea lattes and caramel Frappuccinos — but a sense of just how much the operation has changed over the decades.

The Seattle cafe has become a site of pilgrimage for Starbucks habitués the world over. Photograph: Kevin P Casey/AP

Those who visit the original Starbucks will find themselves at the back of a line stretching well past the small building’s door, and once inside will see nowhere to sit and linger — just as Baldwin, Siegl and Bowker intended. They founded Starbucks not as a place to drink freshly brewed coffee, but as a place to buy freshly roasted beans. The home-brewing coffee aficionados of 1970s Seattle loved it, and demand had grown sufficiently by decade’s end that a curious Howard Schultz – then the general manager of their filter supplier, Hammarplast – paid a visit to No.1912 Pike Place to watch this booming small business in action.

Impressed, Schultz joined Starbucks as director of marketing in 1982 and, on a buying trip to Milan, experienced the cultural awakening that would give the company its destiny – in the form of the Piazza del Duomo’s many coffee bars, all of them serving high-grade espresso, all of them providing quasi-public meeting places for Milanese society. There, amid “the light banter of political debate and the chatter of kids in school uniforms”, the question hit Schultz: why couldn’t American cities have the same thing? And if they could, why couldn’t they serve coffee made with Starbucks-roasted beans?

Unable to convince Starbucks’ founders of the viability of a concept as novel as coffee bars in Seattle, Schultz left the company in 1985. The next year he opened a coffee bar of his own, named “Il Giornale” after one of Milan’s newspapers. Two years after that, he found enough investors to purchase Starbucks outright, which put him in a position, as CEO, to set about his Milanifying mission in earnest: first Seattle, then the United States, then the world.

The layout and decor of the Pike Place branch is largely as it was when Starbucks first launched in 1971. Photograph: Kevin P Casey/Associated Press

Starbucks’ greatest period of expansion began in the early 1990s: having already opened money-losing branches in the US-midwest and British Columbia, it then moved profitably into California in 1991, making its initial public offering on the stock market the following year. Starbucks seemed unstoppable throughout that decade and most of the next, opening on average two new stores every day until 2007. But the increasingly globalised company’s fortunes started to mirror those of the global economy, and the following year saw Starbucks shutter hundreds of locations, a grim necessity unthinkable just a decade earlier.

The Great Recession played its part, but Starbucks had also lost its own way, a fact nobody admitted more readily than Schultz himself. Having stepped back from his duties as CEO in 2000, he wrote a memo diagnosing the company’s ills – quickly leaked to the media – which cited “a series of decisions that, in retrospect, have led to the watering-down of the Starbucks experience”. These included the adoption of fast automatic espresso machines bereft of the “romance and theatre” of the old ones, and easily replicable store designs “that no longer have the soul of the past and reflect a chain of stores vs the warm feeling of a neighbourhood store”.

Ostensibly, Schultz had addressed the message to then-CEO Jim Donald — tellingly, a former executive at Wal-Mart, the “big box” retail giant which surely exemplifies the very opposite of what Schultz revelled in on the sidewalks of Milan. As the revisions of Starbucks’ mermaid rendered her bland and asexual, so the revisions of Starbucks itself drained it of whatever local charm could have made its stores into social centres.

Schultz’s Starbucks has always aspired to create what urban sociologist Ray Oldenburg first termed “third places”: real-life sites that “host the regular, voluntary, informal and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work” — exactly, in other words, what the life of the suburb-housed, crime-fearing American commuter lost in the 1970s and 80s. He wrote of the importance of the “‘place on the corner’, real-life alternatives to television, easy escapes from the cabin fever of marriage and family life that do not necessitate getting into an automobile”.

Today Starbucks boasts more than 21,500 stores in 64 countries and territories worldwide – but none in Italy.

Now that so many street corners seem to have a Starbucks, has the international chain truly become that “place on the corner” where people connect? In fact, Oldenburg dismisses the Starbucks coffee shop as an “imitation”, debilitated by the company’s pursuit of that other quintessentially American obsession, security, and the sterile, predictable environment it produces. “With its overriding concern for safety,” Oldenburg told Bryant Simon, author of Everything But the Coffee: Learning about America from Starbucks, “it can’t achieve the kind of connections I had in mind.”

Walk into a Starbucks today, and you may not notice much connection going on: some customers come in chatty groups, but many others arrive in search of nothing more than a place to open their laptops and get some work done in effect, using Starbucks not as a third but a second place — their workplace. Most simply grab their coffee and go, never pausing to avail themselves of the chairs and couches provided, while others prefer to keep human interaction to an absolute minimum by using the drive-through window, a resoundingly un-urban feature Starbucks introduced in 1994.

Starbucks’ ongoing retooling and experimentation suggests that Schultz, for all he talks about his company’s resurrection of the “third place”, has yet to hear a sufficient amount of political banter and schoolchildren’s chatter in his stores. Starbucks’ enormous scale and need to service the American demand for frictionless convenience contradicts its mission to replicate the appeal of continental coffee-house culture: how much of a neighbourhood-rooted venue for chance encounter can you provide when you have to run thousands and thousands of them, making sure they all do more-or-less the same thing?

Starbucks aspired to create what urban sociologist Ray Oldenburg first termed ‘third places’. Photograph: Simon Crumpton/Alamy

Still, when Starbucks moved beyond its little original store and wove itself into the fabric of American cities, it primed the public for subsequent waves of more genuinely local coffee shops that really do function as third places. These smaller players may accuse Starbucks of abusing its unfair advantage, ignoring city-planning regulations, saturating the market with loss-making stores in prime real estate, and setting its lawyers upon even the faintest hint of trademark infringement, but the fact remains that Starbucks paved the way by introducing an urban coffee culture into places that had never known it before.

Starbucks’ opening in the already coffee-soaked Tokyo in 1996 marked its first step outside North America. The company’s international president, Howard Behar, spoke at the time of losing sleep over stepping into a city with such entrenched competition, but now Japan has well over a thousand Starbucks stores all over the country.


New to Field Day? START HERE!

Field Day is ham radio's open house. Every June, more than 40,000 hams throughout North America set up temporary transmitting stations in public places to demonstrate ham radio's science, skill and service to our communities and our nation. It combines public service, emergency preparedness, community outreach, and technical skills all in a single event. Field Day has been an annual event since 1933, and remains the most popular event in ham radio.

Get ready for 2021 ARRL Field Day (YouTube video), created by J. Mitch Hopper, K9ZXO, QSL Manager -- Sangamon Valley Radio Club. See also a version with Spanish-language subtitles.

We welcome the public to come learn more about ham radio! Use our Field Day Locator to search for a Field Day site near you.

Want to see what Field Day is all about? Watch our 2019 Field Day Public Service Announcement or view what several groups uploaded to Youtube from their 2018 Field Day activities. You can also listen to/download our 30 sec. radio announcement for 2019 Field Day (mp3).


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The Popover plugin is similar to tooltips it is a pop-up box that appears when the user clicks on an element. The difference is that the popover can contain much more content..

Content Header

The Popover plugin is similar to tooltips it is a pop-up box that appears when the user clicks on an element. The difference is that the popover can contain much more content..

Content Header

The Popover plugin is similar to tooltips it is a pop-up box that appears when the user clicks on an element. The difference is that the popover can contain much more content..

Content Header

The Popover plugin is similar to tooltips it is a pop-up box that appears when the user clicks on an element. The difference is that the popover can contain much more content..

Content Header

The Popover plugin is similar to tooltips it is a pop-up box that appears when the user clicks on an element. The difference is that the popover can contain much more content..

Content Header

The Popover plugin is similar to tooltips it is a pop-up box that appears when the user clicks on an element. The difference is that the popover can contain much more content..


Watch the video: Ηλικιωμένος πέφτει και χτυπάει μπροστά στον Μητσοτάκη


Comments:

  1. Nemi

    You commit an error. Let's discuss. Write to me in PM, we will communicate.

  2. Berihun

    Senkyu, useful info! ;)

  3. Megedagik

    Random coincidence

  4. Kamau

    It's easier to hit your head against the wall than to implement all this in its normal form

  5. Harriman

    This matter out of your hands!

  6. Bazilkree

    The authoritative message :), curiously...



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